Taboada, Sergi; Silva, Ana Serra; Neal, Lenka; Cristobo, Javier; Ríos, Pilar; Álvarez-Campos, Patricia; Hestetun, Jon Thomassen; Koutsouveli, Vasiliki; Sherlock, Emma; Riesgo, Ana. (2019 [2020). Insights into the symbiotic relationship between scale worms and carnivorous sponges (Cladorhizidae, Chondrocladia). Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. efirst 103191: 1-14.
World Polychaeta Database (WPolyDb). First online published: 10 December 2019
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Symbiotic associations between polynoid scale worms and other marine invertebrates are common, but some- times poorly understood. Compounding this problem is the fact that polynoid systematics is largely unresolved. Here, we transfer the species originally described as Nemidia antillicola chondrocladiae Fauvel (1943), and currently synonymized with Neopolynoe acanellae (Verrill, 1881), to the species Neopolynoe chondrocladiae n. comb. This species is characterized by living in association with the carnivorous sponges Chondrocladia rob- ertballardi Cristobo, Rios, Pomponi & Xavier, 2015 and Chondrocladia virgata Thompson, 1873. The existence of specialized chaetae in N. chondrocladiae n. comb. and the occurrence of open galleries in the sponge, derived from a gradual overgrowth of the sponge to accommodate the worm, suggest an obligate symbiotic relationship between worm and sponge. The presence of a gravid female with relatively small oocytes (maximum diameter 56.94 .14.89 ƒÊm) suggests that N. chondrocladiae n. comb. is a gonochoristic broadcaster with a planktotrophic larva, a means of reproduction that would maximize the chances of this species finding new suitable hosts to colonize. We also provide a phylogenetic placement, using four genetic markers (18S, 28S, 16S and COI), for N. chondrocladiae n. comb. and N. acanellae, which confirms they are two different species. In addition, we also report here the occurrence of another deep-water polynoid species in association with the carnivorous sponge Chondrocladia verticillata Topsent, 1920, from the Gulf of Mexico, and place it in a phylogeny.