Arctic Ocean Diversity
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Väinölä R, Vainio JK, Palo JU (2001) Phylogeography of "glacial relict" Gammaracanthus (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from boreal lakes and the Caspian and White Seas. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58: 2247-2257.
168278
Väinölä, R.; Vainio, JK.; Palo, JU.
2001
Phylogeography of "glacial relict" Gammaracanthus (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from boreal lakes and the Caspian and White Seas
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
58: 2247-2257
Publication
As with a number of "glacial relict" crustacean genera, species of Gammaracanthus are vicariously distributed in circumarctic coastal waters, in boreal freshwater lakes, and in the Caspian Sea. Various hypotheses have been invoked to explain the origins and diversity of the non-marine taxa. Data on 28 allozyme loci and 558 bp of the mitochondrial COI gene demonstrate a close affinity between G. caspius of the Caspian Sea and G. aestuariorum of the White Sea area (Nei's allozyme distance D = 0.09, COI sequence divergence d = 5%), and a threefold divergence of the two from the Fennoscandian freshwater G. lacustris (D = 0.33, d = 12%). The relative molecular affinities agree with morphological evidence but contradict the idea of a common ancestry of the non-marine taxa, rather they suggest two independent invasions of continental waters. The generally low molecular divergence refutes the recently suggested generic splitting of Gammaracanthus. Previous speculations of an affinity of Gammaracanthus to the Baikalian acanthogammarids or to the Eusiroidea are not substantiated. The interspecific phylogeographic structure of Gammaracanthus is not concordant with that of other "glacial relict" crustacean genera. Phylogeographically, Gammaracanthus seems to match with the genus Monoporeia alone, rather than with Pontoporeia sensu lato.
Arctic-Boreal marine
Caspian Sea, Black Sea, Ponto-Caspian
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