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Huber, J. L.; Da Silva, K. B.; Bates, W. R.; Swalla, B. J. (2000). The evolution of anural larvae in molgulid ascidians. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. 11(6): 419-426.
10.1006/scdb.2000.0195 [view]
Huber, J. L.; Da Silva, K. B.; Bates, W. R.; Swalla, B. J.
The evolution of anural larvae in molgulid ascidians
Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
11(6): 419-426
Available for editors  PDF available
Ascidians are urochordates, marine invertebrates with non-feeding motile chordate tadpole larvae, except in the family Molgulidae. Urodele, or tailed, Molgulids have typical ascidian chordate tadpole larvae possessing tails with muscle cells, a notochord, and a dorsal hollow nerve cord. In contrast, anural (or tail-less) Molgulids lack a tail and defining chordate features. Molecular phylogenies generated with 18S and 28S ribosomal sequences indicate that Molgulid species fall into at least four distinct clades, three of which have multiple anural members. This refined and expanded phylogeny allows careful examination of the factors that may have influenced the evolution of tail-less ascidians.
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2016-02-16 08:15:34Z

Northern Gulf of Mexico for Bostrichobranchus digonas Abbott, 1951  (origin: native)
Oregon, Washington, Vancouver Coast and Shelf for Molgula pacifica (Huntsman, 1912)  (origin: native - endemic)

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