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Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M. (2003). Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review. 41: 47-114.
4179
Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M
2003
Antarctic marine benthic diversity
Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review
41: 47-114
Publication
An unpublished species checklist compiled for background to this paper was used as basis for the Register of Antarctic Marine Species. The paper itself contains no species lists.
Ant'Phipoda Literature database.
Species lists have been compiled for all the major groups of Southern Ocean benthic marine invertebrates, eliminating synonymies where possible and providing a subjective estimate of completeness and reliability for each group. Antarctic marine diversity (pelagic and benthic) is relatively high at the phylum and class level, with the gaps mostly comprising minor, meiofaunal or parasitic groups. Most benthic diversity data come from the continental shelves, with relatively few samples from deeper water. Even for the continental shelves, however, sampling is highly patchy with some areas hardly investigated at all. Over 4100 benthic species have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with the most speciose groups being polychaetes, gastropods and amphipods. Comparison with tropical and temperate regions suggest that decapods, bivalves and teleost fishes are poorly represented in the Southern Ocean benthic marine fauna, whereas pycnogonids, echinoderms and many suspension feeding groups are rich and diverse. Some groups that are currently low in diversity were previously well represented in the Antarctic shallow water marine fauna, notably decapods and many fishes. Other groups have undergone marked radiations in the Southern Ocean, including pycnogonids, amphipods, isopods and teleost fishes; in all cases, however, it is only some lineages that have diversified. This indicates that evolutionary questions concerning the origin, diversification or extinction of the Southern Ocean marine fauna will have no single answer; the evolutionary history of each group appears to reflect a different response to the tectonic, climatic and oceanographic changes to which they have been subject through history. The disposition of southern hemisphere continents makes it difficult to assess whether there is a latitudinal cline in shallow-water marine diversity to mirror that known from the northern hemisphere. Within Antarctica, many species appear to have circumpolar distributions, and the long established biogeographical division into continental Antarctic, Antarctic Peninsula and sub-Antarctic regions have not been challenged by recent sampling. For most groups the frequency distribution of species per genus ratios is typical, though none is well described by the predictions from current evolutionary or null models. Where data are available, size spectra indicate that many Southern Ocean taxa are small, a few spectacular examples of gigantism notwithstanding, and species abundance plots are normal. Knowledge of the Southern Ocean benthic marine fauna has reached a stage where we can now ask powerful evolutionary questions, and the development of new molecular techniques provides the mechanism for answering them
Antarctic
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Adagnesia weddelli Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1994 (basis of record)
Agnezia arnaudi (Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1974) (basis of record)
Agnezia biscoei (Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983) (basis of record)
Alloecarpa Michaelsen, 1900 accepted as Alloeocarpa Michaelsen, 1900 (basis of record)
Alloeocarpa incrustans (Herdman, 1886) (basis of record)
Aplidium annulatum Sluiter, 1906 (basis of record)
Aplidium aurore (Harant & Vernières, 1938) accepted as Aplidium aurorae (Harant & Vernières, 1938) (basis of record)
Aplidium ballaniae Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983 accepted as Aplidium balleniae Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983 (basis of record)
Aplidium bilinguae Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983 (basis of record)
Aplidium cyaneum Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983 (basis of record)
Aplidium falklandicum Millar, 1960 (basis of record)
Aplidium fuegiense (Cunningham, 1871) (basis of record)
Aplidium globosum (Herdman, 1886) (basis of record)
Aplidium imbutum Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983 (basis of record)
Aplidium irregulare (Herdman, 1886) (basis of record)
Aplidium loricatum (Harant & Vernières, 1938) (basis of record)
Aplidium meridianum (Sluiter, 1906) (basis of record)
Aplidium millari Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1994 (basis of record)
Aplidium miripartum Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983 (basis of record)
Aplidium ordinatum (Sluiter, 1906) (basis of record)
Aplidium paessleri (Michaelsen, 1907) (basis of record)
Aplidium radiatum (Sluiter, 1906) (basis of record)
Aplidium recumbens (Herdman, 1886) (basis of record)
Aplidium siderum Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983 (basis of record)
Aplidium stanleyi Millar, 1960 (basis of record)
Aplidium stewartense (Michaelsen, 1924) accepted as Synoicum stewartense (Michaelsen, 1924) (basis of record)
Aplidium triplex (Sluiter, 1906) accepted as Synoicum triplex (Sluiter, 1906) (basis of record)
Aplidium vanhoeffeni Hartmeyer, 1911 (basis of record)
Aplidium variabile (Herdman, 1886) (basis of record)
Aplidium vastum (Sluiter, 1912) (basis of record)
Ascidia challengeri Herdman, 1882 (basis of record)
Bathyoncus enderbyanus Michaelsen, 1904 accepted as Bathystyeloides enderbyanus (Michaelsen, 1904) (basis of record)
Bathypera Michaelsen, 1904 (basis of record)
Bathypera splendens Michaelsen, 1904 (basis of record)
Boltenia hirta Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1977 (basis of record)
Caenagnesia Ärnbäck-Christie-Linde, 1938 (basis of record)
Caenagnesia bocki Ärnbäck-Christie-Linde, 1938 (basis of record)
Caenagnesia schmitti Kott, 1969 (basis of record)
Cibacapsa Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983 (basis of record)
Cibacapsa gulosa Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983 (basis of record)
Ciona antarctica Hartmeyer, 1911 (additional source)
Cnemidocarpa barbata Vinogradova, 1962 (basis of record)
Cnemidocarpa drygalskii (Hartmeyer, 1911) (basis of record)
Cnemidocarpa eposi Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1994 (basis of record)
Cnemidocarpa pfefferi (Michaelsen, 1898) (basis of record)
Cnemidocarpa sericator Kott, 1971 accepted as Cnemidocarpa sericata (Herdman, 1888) (basis of record)
Cnemidocarpa verrucosa (Lesson, 1830) (basis of record)
Corella eumyota Traustedt, 1882 (basis of record)
Corynascidia cubare Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1994 (basis of record)
Culeolus murrayi Herdman, 1881 (basis of record)
Cystodytes antarcticus Sluiter, 1912 (basis of record)
Dicarpa insinuosa (Sluiter, 1912) (basis of record)
Dicarpa mysogyna Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1982 (basis of record)
Dicarpa tricostata (Millar, 1960) (basis of record)
Didemnum biglans (Sluiter, 1906) (basis of record)
Didemnum studeri Hartmeyer, 1911 (basis of record)
Didemnum tenue (Herdman, 1886) (basis of record)
Dimeatus Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1982 (basis of record)
Dimeatus mirus Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1981 (basis of record)
Diplosoma antarcticum Kott, 1969 (basis of record)
Diplosoma longinquum (Sluiter, 1912) (basis of record)
Distaplia colligans Sluiter, 1932 (basis of record)
Distaplia cylindrica (Lesson, 1830) (basis of record)
Eugyrioides kerguelenensis (Herdman, 1881) accepted as Eugyra kerguelenensis Herdman, 1881 (basis of record)
Eugyrioides polyducta Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983 accepted as Eugyra polyducta (Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983) (basis of record)
Minostyela Kott, 1969 accepted as Styela Fleming, 1822 (additional source)
Minostyela clavata Kott, 1969 accepted as Styela clavata (Pallas, 1774) (basis of record)
Molgula bathybia (Hartmeyer, 1912) (basis of record)
Molgula enodis (Sluiter, 1912) (basis of record)
Molgula euplicata Herdman, 1923 (basis of record)
Molgula georgiana Michaelsen, 1922 (basis of record)
Molgula hodgsoni Herdman, 1910 (basis of record)
Molgula longivascula Millar, 1982 (basis of record)
Molgula millari Kott, 1971 (basis of record)
Molgula pedunculata (Herdman, 1881) (basis of record)
Molgula pulchra Michaelsen, 1900 (basis of record)
Molgula pyriformis Herdman, 1881 (basis of record)
Molgula robini Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983 (basis of record)
Molgula tenuis Kott, 1954 accepted as Molguloides tenuis Kott, 1954 (basis of record)
Molguloides coronatum Monniot C., 1978 (basis of record)
Mysterascidia Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1982 (additional source)
Mysterascidia symmetrica Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1982 (basis of record)
Pareugyrioides arnbackae (Millar, 1960) (basis of record)
Pharyngodictyon Herdman, 1886 (additional source)
Pharyngodictyon mirable Herdman, 1886 accepted as Pharyngodictyon mirabile Herdman, 1886 (basis of record)
Placentela Redikorzev, 1913 (additional source)
Placentela translucida Kott, 1969 (basis of record)
Polycitor magalhaensis (Michaelsen, 1907) (basis of record)
Polysyncraton trivolutum (Millar, 1960) (basis of record)
Polyzoa Lesson, 1831 (basis of record)
Polyzoa opuntia Lesson, 1830 (basis of record)
Protoholozoa pendunculata Kott, 1969 accepted as Protoholozoa pedunculata Kott, 1969 (basis of record)
Pyura bouvetensis Michaelsen, 1904 (basis of record)
Pyura discoveryi (Herdman, 1910) (basis of record)
Pyura georgiana (Michaelsen, 1898) (basis of record)
Pyura lycoperon Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983 accepted as Pyura lycoperdon Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983 (basis of record)
Pyura multiruga Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1982 (basis of record)
Pyura obesa Hartmeyer, 1919 (basis of record)
Pyura setosa (Sluiter, 1905) (basis of record)
Pyura squamata Hartmeyer, 1911 (basis of record)
 Authority

Author uncertain [details]

 Authority

(Kinberg, 1866) according to RAMS [details]

 Authority

Monniot & Monniot, 1982 [details]

 Authority

RAMS gives this species (Kroyer, 1856) as author [details]

 Authority

Described by Lyman in 1882 [details]

 Authority

(Keferstein, 1863) is mentioned in RAMS [details]

 Authority

RAMS mentions Ehlers, 1875 as author [details]

 Authority

Gambi et al., 1997 found 2 not yet described species: "sp.1" and "sp.2" [details]

 Authority

Ehlers, 1897 according to RAMS [details]

 Authority

Schmarda, 1861 according to RAMS [details]

 Authority

Ehlers, 1874 according to RAMS [details]

 Authority

Mentioned as Kinberg, 1866a in RAMS [details]

 Authority

The authors are uncertain about the authority [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Anoplodactylus belongs to the Pycnogonidae family instead of the Phoxichilidiidae family. [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Ascothorax belongs to the Synagogidae family instead of the Ascothoracidae family. [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Balanus belongs to the Bathylasmatidae family instead of the Balanidae family. [details]

 Classification

Listed under family Pyuridae [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Placed under Subfamily Coninae [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Coronula belongs to the Bathylasmatidae family instead of the Coronulidae family. [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the family Ctenosculidae belongs to the Cirripedia infraclass instead of the Ascothoracida ... [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the family Dendrogastridae belongs to the Cirripedia infraclass instead of the Ascothoracida ... [details]

 Classification

Under Subfamily Cioninae [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the Family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

Genus Escharella is considered by RAMS to belong to the FamilyExochellidae [details]

 Classification

The Genus Escharoides is considered bt RAMS to belong to the Family Exochellidae [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the Family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

Considered by RAMS to belong to the Family Exochellidae [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Listed under Dimeatidae in Clarke & Johnston (2003). [details]

 Classification

Belongs to the family Arcturidae accoring to RAMS [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Pallenopsis belongs to the Callipallenidae; in the printed version of ERMS, the genus is ... [details]

 Classification

Belongs to family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Placed in family Plicatocrinidae by Clarke & Johnston (2003). [details]

 Classification

belongs to familt Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the Family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the family Synagogidae belongs to the Cirripedia infraclass instead of the Ascothoracida infraclass. [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the Family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

Belongs to family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Xenobalanus belongs to the Bathylasmatidae family instead of the Coronulidae family. [details]

 Identification

cf. loveni Malmgren, 1865 [details]

 Identification

The authors are uncertain about the Species [details]

 Spelling
 for Actiniaria

Actinaria [details]

 Spelling

Actinidae [details]

 Spelling

Actinoschyphiidae [details]

 Spelling

Spelled as Alyconidum eightsi in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Spelled as Amphlibestrum inermis in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Spelles as Amphiporus gerlachi in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Referred to by RAMS as Biemna chiliensis[details]

 Spelling

Spelled as Camploplites retiformis in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Also spelled Cerebratulus malvidi in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Referred to by RAMS as Coelosphaera appendiculata[details]

 Spelling

In RAMS spelled as Cymodocea australis [details]

 Spelling

commonly misspelled as Dendrophyllidae [details]

 Spelling

Referred to by RAMS as Desmacidon ramosa and by Uriz as Desmacidon ramosus, but corrected for gender of genus name. [details]

 Spelling

Referred to by RAMS as Dolichocantha macrodon[details]

 Spelling

Clarke & Johnston's (2003) list of Antarctic sponges misspelled the (sub-)genus name Ectyomyxilla as Ectomyxilla, ... [details]

 Spelling

This Genus is also spelled Frontoserolils in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Gorgonidae [details]

 Spelling

Spelled Harmothoe (Harmathoe) spinosa in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Spelled Herdmadion in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

In RAMS, this species is spelled "Herdmadion magalhaensi" [details]

 Spelling

Jathrippa [details]

 Spelling

Kophobelemnonidae [details]

 Spelling

As far as is known the genus misspelling 'Leospira' exists only in an unpublished checklist associated with the ... [details]

 Spelling

Referred to by RAMS as Leucoselenia[details]

 Spelling

Referred to by RAMS as Leucoselenia discoveryi[details]

 Spelling

Mogula pedunculata in RAMS checklist [details]

 Spelling

listed as Mogula robini [details]

 Spelling

in RAMS spelled as M. longircollaris [details]

 Spelling

Spelled in RAMS as Pseudoscalibregmida bransfieldia [details]

 Spelling

In RAMS spelled as S.( Leodamus) marginatus mcleani [details]

 Spelling

In RAMS spelled as S. (Leodamus) ohlini [details]

 Spelling

Also spelled T. maikenensis in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Umbellula thomsonii [details]

 Taxonomy

Belongs to Prosorhochmidae according to RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

A species named A. nr. hastulifera was described by (Fauvel, 1936) in RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

RAMS also mentions a species Autolutus cf. maclearanus [details]

 Taxonomy

RAMS also mentions a species Autolytus cf. simplex [details]

 Taxonomy

Hooper (2002) and Van Soest (2002) in the same volume assign Bipocillopsis as a junior synonym to different genera ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Belongs to Lineidae accoriding to RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

Classified under Onuphidae in RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

Gambi et al., 1997 mentions two not yet described species: sp. 1 and sp. 2 [details]

 Taxonomy

Referred to by RAMS as Geodinella, which is a junior genus name for Geodia according to a checklist provided by Rob ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Gambi et al., 1997 mention a not yet described species, Harmothoe sp.1 [details]

 Taxonomy

The genus Leodora is placed under Serpulidae according to RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

Classified under Iphitimidae [details]

 Taxonomy

Was under Iphitimidae. Palpiphitime is best treated as a species group within Ophyrotrocha according to Wiklund et ... [details]

 Taxonomy

This Genus is placed under Serpulidae in RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

This genus belongs to Lineidae according to RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

RAMS also mentions a species Pionosyllis cf. comosa [details]

 Taxonomy

Gambi et al., 1997 mentios 2 not yet described species: sp.1 and sp.2 [details]

 Taxonomy

(Hartman, 1978) mentions 3 not yet described species: sp.A, sp. B and sp. C [details]

 Taxonomy

RAMS mentions also a species Sphaerosyllis cf. tetralix[details]


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