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Schuchert, P. (2007). The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera part 2. Revue suisse de Zoologie. 114: 195-396.
130045
Schuchert, P.
2007
The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera part 2
Revue suisse de Zoologie
114: 195-396
Publication
This study reviews all European species belonging to the filiferan families Bougainvilliidae, Cytaeididae, Rathkeidae, and Pandeidae. Updated diagnoses for the families and genera are provided and taxonomic problems solved or at least outlined. Lizzia blondina is removed from the Bougainvilliidae and transferred to the Rathkeidae based on results from 16S sequence data. Dysmorphosa minuta Mayer, 1900 is regarded as a synonym of Lizzia blondina; morphological and molecular evidence is provided. Cytaeis minima Trinci, 1903, formerly included in the Hydractiniidae, is transferred to a new genus Podocorynoides and included in the Rathkeidae as Podocorynoides minima (Trinci, 1903). Perigonimus nanellus Stechow, 1919 belongs to the genus Dicoryne and is likely a synonym of Dicoryne conybearei (Allman, 1864). Perigonimus nudus Stechow, 1919 is recognized as a new synonym of Eirene viridula (Péron & Lesueur, 1810). The Mediterranean records of Rhizorhagium michaeli and R. arenosum are most likely based on misidentifications of Pachycordyle pusilla (Motz-Kossowska, 1905). Annatiara lempersi Bleeker & van der Spoel, 1988 is a synonym of Annatiara affinis (Hartlaub, 1914).
Eastern Atlantic
Systematics, Taxonomy
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
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Bimeria Wright, 1859 (redescription)
Bougainvillia muscoides (Sars, 1846) (redescription)
Bougainvillia muscus (Allman, 1863) (redescription)
Bougainvillia principis (Steenstrup, 1850) (redescription)
Bougainvillia ramosa (Van Beneden, 1844) accepted as Bougainvillia muscus (Allman, 1863) (status source)
Bougainvillia superciliaris (L. Agassiz, 1849) (redescription)
Bougainvilliidae Lütken, 1850 (additional source)
Catablema vesicarium (A. Agassiz, 1862) (redescription)
Dicoryne Allman, 1859 (redescription)
Dicoryne conferta (Alder, 1856) (redescription)
Garveia Wright, 1859 (redescription)
Garveia franciscana (Torrey, 1902) (redescription)
Halitholus Hartlaub, 1914 (additional source)
Halitholus cirratus Hartlaub, 1913 (redescription)
Halitholus pauper Hartlaub, 1914 (redescription)
Leuckartiara nobilis Hartlaub, 1914 (redescription)
Leuckartiara octona (Fleming, 1823) (redescription)
Nemopsis Agassiz, 1849 (redescription)
Nemopsis bachei L. Agassiz, 1849 (redescription)
Neoturris Hartlaub, 1914 (redescription)
Neoturris breviconis (Murbach & Shearer, 1902) (redescription)
Neoturris pileata (Forsskål, 1775) (redescription)
Pachycordyle Weismann, 1883 (additional source)
Pachycordyle michaeli (Berrill, 1948) (redescription)
Pandea rubra Bigelow, 1913 (redescription)
Perigonimus yoldiae-arcticae Birula, 1897 accepted as Halitholus yoldiaearcticae (Birula, 1897) (additional source)
Rathkea octopunctata (M. Sars, 1835) (redescription)
Rathkeidae Russell, 1953 (redescription)
Rhizorhagium roseum M. Sars, 1874 (redescription)
Egypt for Garveia franciscana (Torrey, 1902)  (origin: alien)
European waters (ERMS scope) for Bougainvillia superciliaris (L. Agassiz, 1849) 
Nigerian part of the Gulf of Guinea for Garveia franciscana (Torrey, 1902)  (origin: alien)
 Biology

colonial hydriod, with sporosacs, grows grows on shells of Hinia incrassata (Müller), either inhabited by the ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Colonies stolonal or erect, with perisarc enveloping hydranth and extending as a sheath over proximal ends of ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Hydroid colony stolonal or branched, more rarely hydranths sessile; perisarc terminating at base of hydranth or ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Medusa jelly thick; no peduncle, basal trunk of oral tentacles long, ocelli crescentic or oval, often appearing ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Hydroids solitary or colonial; hydranths stolonal, branched, or rarely sessile, arising from creeping hydrorhiza; ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Colonial hydroids, branched or not, perisarc not ensheathing bases of tentacles; hydranth with one whorl of ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Hydroids colonial, stolonal or branching, covered by perisarc infested with foreign material; filmy perisarc also ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Medusa mostly with an apical projection of variable size. Manubrium voluminous, connected to radial canals by ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Medusae with four or eight simple, unbranched perradial oral tentacles inserting at level of mouth rim; with ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Hydroids, solitary, small, club-shaped, with pedal disk, hydrocaulus not distinctly delimited from hydranth body, ... [details]

 Diagnosis

Medusa bell-shaped, manubrium either with four elongated lips forming simple or branched oral arms with terminal ... [details]

 Distribution

A northern boreal medusa occurring in coastal areas from the Barents Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea. ... [details]

 Distribution

Atlantic Ocean, off Brittany (Russell, 1956b); Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal (Navas, 1971; Navas-Pereira & Vannucci, ... [details]

 Nomenclature

Genus Codonorchis is unrecognizable [details]

 Remark

KEY TO THE GENERA OF THE BOUGAINVILLIIDAE: see Schuchert (2007) [details]

 Status

could be conspecific with Pachycordyle navis (Millard, 1959)  [details]

 Status

An indeterminate species, could be Amphinema rugosum or A. dinema (see Rees, 1956a). [details]

 Status

An unrecognizable species, likely a synonym (aberrant form) of Rathkea octopunctata [details]

 synonymy

Nigritina atlantica Steenstrup. – Kramp, 1961: 64, name not available. Cytaeis tetrastyla Eschscholtz, 1829: ... [details]

 synonymy

Perigonimus schneideri Motz-Kossowska, 1905: 72, fig. 6i. – Rees, 1956a: 344. ? Perigonimus steinachi ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Taxonomic position unclear, adult medusa unknown. [details]

 Taxonomy

The genus Lizzia was transferred to the Family Rathkeidae based on 16S DNA data [details]

 Taxonomy

Likely belongs to the genus Bougainvillia. [details]

 Taxonomy

perhaps the polyp of Halitholus cirratus Hartlaub, 1914 [details]

 Type species

When Forbes (1846: 286) defined the genus Lizzia he stated «..founded for Cytaeis octopunctata of Sars...». This ... [details]

 Validity

Podocoryne alderi Hodge, 1863 is synonym of B. muscus (medusa only). [details]

 Validity

unrecognizable species, likely a synonym of Rathkea octopunctata [details]

 Validity

See Schuchert (2007: 359) why this combination is not valid. [details]

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