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Licher, Frank 2000 (1999), Revision der Gattung Typosyllis Langerhans, 1879 (Polychaeta: Syllidae). Morphologie, Taxonomie und Phylogenie. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 551:1-336
23045
Publication
World Polychaeta Database (WPolyD). Issue date 1999, but published early 2000.
The genus Typosyllis (Langerhans, 1879) (Polychaeta: Syllidae: Syllinae) is revised for the first time. All distinct species of this taxon are described in detail and synonyms listed. Altogether, more than 1850 specimens representing 213 taxa were examined. Twenty-three taxa, previously assigned to Syllis, Langerhansia, Ehlersia or Pionosyllis, are transferred to the genus Typosyllis. Eight species previously assigned to Typosyllis or Syllis are transfered to other syllid taxa. One junior homonym is renamed. The following four species are described as new to science: T. hyllebergi sp. nov., T. mauretanica sp. nov., T. silkeae sp. nov. and T. taiwanensis sp. nov. Three names are treated as Syllinae incertae sedis. Fifty-five names are regarded as younger synonyms of previously described Typosyllis-species. Fifty-seven names are considered nomina dubia. Nine names are considered nomina nuda. The names Syllis atlantico and S. atlantica lineata originally erected as nomina nova have to be eliminated. According to this revision the genus Typosyllis comprises 107 distinct species. A key for identification of all species is provided. Four lectotypes and several paralectotypes are designated: Typosyllis vittata (Grube, 1840) (MPW 673), T. valida Grube, 1857 (ZMUC 881; ZMUC 890), T. neglecta (Grube, 1870) comb. nov. (ZMB Verm. 843 (LT); ZMB Verm. 11074 (PLT)) und T. violacea (Grube, 1870) comb. nov. (ZMB Verm. 844; ZMB 11073). For two species neotypes are designated: Typosyllis cornuta (Rathke, 1843) (NTNU) und T. prolifera (Krohn, 1852) (NHMG Inve-21334). In the computer-based, cladistic analysis of Typosyllis revealed 3 large monophyletic groups of complexes: the complex-group cornuta (22 species, 6 species-groups), the complex-group prolifera (49 species, 8 species-groups) and the complex-group armillaris (25 species, 4 species-groups). Eleven species cannot be assigned with certainty to any of these 18 species-groups. It is shown that the taxa previously assigned to the genus Langerhansia (species with falcigerous and pseudospinigerous chaetae) probably form a monophylum, whereas the taxa previously assigned to the genus Typosyllis (species with falcigerous chaetae only) form a paraphylum. Nevertheless, the taxa Langerhansia is eliminated by referring the respective species to the genus Typosyllis, since the distinction of these two groups is based only on slight, gradual differences in some characters, providing no sound reasoning for a correct assignment of some species to Typosyllis or to Langerhansia.
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
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 Depth range

11-16 m. [details]

 Depth range

Shallow water and 53-115 m.  [details]

 Depth range

1-35 m. [details]

 Depth range

Eulittoral.  [details]

 Depth range

Eulittoral to sublittoral. Between 2-3 m at the type locality.  [details]

 Depth range

Eulittoral.  [details]

 Depth range

Continental shelf and shallow to deep slope depths, 97-2900 m. [details]

 Depth range

Eulittoral.  [details]

 Distribution

Australia: Queensland; South Australia; Western Australia (Shark Bay and Albany District). Indonesia. Eastern Africa: ... [details]

 Distribution

Philippine Islands (Bohol); Western Australia (Shark Bay).  [details]

 Distribution

South Africa; Argentina; Chile; Antarctic Ocean; Kerguelen; New Zealand; Australia; South China.  [details]

 Distribution

Pacific Ocean: Hawaiian Islands; Polynesia; NW Australia. [details]

 Distribution

Mediterranean Sea. Caribbean Sea: Cuba.  [details]

 Distribution

Red Sea; Mediterranean Sea; Indian Ocean; Caribbean Sea; Gulf of Mexico.  [details]

 Distribution

Pacific Ocean: Hawaiian Islands.  [details]

 Distribution

Red Sea, Gulf of Aqaba and Suez Canal.  [details]

 Distribution

Red Sea: Saudi Arabia (Sarso Island). Circumtropical to subtropical.  [details]

 Distribution

Mauritania, Banc d'Arguin.  [details]

 Distribution

Atlantic Ocean: continental slope off New England (USA); continental shelves of Guiana and Brazil (off Pernambuco). [details]

 Distribution

Red Sea: Egypt (Hurghada). Indian Ocean: Mozambique (Xai Xai). Mediterranean Sea.  [details]

 Distribution

Taiwan.  [details]

 Distribution

See note for Syllis truncata [details]

 Editor's comment

The description of the species Syllis brevis Schmarda, 1861 seems to indicate a specimen belonging to the genus ... [details]

 Editor's comment

Licher (1999: 307-308) revised the type material deposited at the MPW, considering it to be a nomen dubium due to ... [details]

 Editor's comment

Day (1954) did not state explicitly which of the 46 stations where the new species was collected was the type ... [details]

 Etymology

The specific epithet nigricirris refers to the dorsal black cirri that characterizes the species.  [details]

 Etymology

The specific epithet hawaiiensis refers to the type locality of the species, the Hawaiian Islands.  [details]

 Etymology

The species is dedicated to Dr. Jørgen Hylleberg, from the University of Århus, Denmark, who collected the type ... [details]

 Etymology

The specific epithet lutea, feminine form of the Latin word luteus, meaning 'yellowish' or 'sallow', refers to the ... [details]

 Etymology

The specific epithet mauretanica refers to the type locality of the species, Mauritania.  [details]

 Etymology

The specific epithet parteinopterona refers to the great length of the blades, being composed by the old Greek ... [details]

 Etymology

The species is dedicated to the wife of the author, Silke.  [details]

 Habitat

On tubes of sabellids and among green algae, eulittoral. [details]

 Habitat

Among eulittoral algae.  [details]

 Habitat

Eulittoral.  [details]

 Habitat

AEulittoral, among seagrasses.  [details]

 Habitat

Continental shelf and slope. Further information lacking.  [details]

 Habitat

Eulittoral, in sand with coral rubble.  [details]

 Homonymy

With the move of the species to the genus Typosyllis performed by Licher (1999) the species became a secondary ... [details]

 Homonymy

New name for Langerhansia anoculata Hartman & Fauchald, 1971 nec Hartmann-Schroder, 1962. With the move of ... [details]

 Neotype

Dorsey & Phillips (1987) searched unsuccessfully for the holotype of Syllis (Ehlersia) heterochaeta at the ... [details]

 Nomenclature

Licher (1999: 54-57) revised the type material of Syllis gracilis Schmarda, 1861, and determined that it was a ... [details]

 Nomenclature

Licher (1999: 205, footnote) corrects the specific epithet from krohnii to krohni, evoking article 31.1.2. of the ... [details]

 Nomenclature

The specific epithet was corrected by Licher (1999: 131) from hawaiensis to hawaiiensis.  [details]

 Nomenclature

Licher (1999: 54-57) revised the type material of Syllis gracilis Schmarda, 1861, and determined that it was a ... [details]

 Nomenclature

The specific epithet was corrected by Licher (1999: 131) from the original hawaiensis to the current hawaiiensis.  [details]

 Nomenclature

According to Licher (1999: 264, footnote) the correct latinization of the specific epithet is heterocirrata, ... [details]

 Nomenclature

According to Licher (1999: 264, footnote) the correct latinization of the specific epithet is heterocirrata, ... [details]

 Status

Hartman (1959: 225) considered that the species belonged to the genus Syllis, being however indeterminable to ... [details]

 Status

The species was considered to be a nomen dubium by Licher (1999: 304).  [details]

 Status

The species was considered to be a nomen dubium by Licher (1999: 304).  [details]

 Synonymy

The species was synonymized with Syllis variegata Grube, 1860 (as Typosyllis) by Licher (1999: 108).  [details]

 Synonymy

Licher (2000), in a monumental and painstaking monograph on genus Typosyllis, maintained the genus named by ... [details]

 Taxonomic remark

According to Licher et al. (1995) and Licher (1999), the paratypes USNM 75308 and USNM 75312 of Syllis ortizi San ... [details]

 Taxonomic remark

According to Licher et al. (1995) and Licher (1999), the paratypes USNM 75308 and USNM 75312 of Syllis ortizi San ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Licher (1999) and San Martín (2003) erroneously considered Syllis cirropunctata as a synonym of Branchiosyllis ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Current taxon was considered as a junior synonym of Syllis cornuta Rathke, 1843 by Carus (1885: 228), Soulier ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Current taxon was generally considered as a junior synonym of Haplosyllis spongicola (Grube, 1855), but was ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Moved to genus Typosyllis by Licher (1999), and Syllis in Amaral & Rossi-Wongtschowski (2004).  [details]

 Taxonomy

Moved to genus Typosyllis by Hartman (1959: 217, 234). Considered as a nomen dubium by Licher (1999: 304)  [details]

 Taxonomy

The species was moved to genus Typosyllis Langerhans, 1879 by Hartman (1959: 230, 234), in spite of the fact that ... [details]

 Taxonomy

San Martín (1992) first and Licher (1999) later revised the type material and considered the species to be synonym ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Moved to genus Typosyllis by Hartman (1959: 235).
Licher (1999: 307) considered the species as nomen dubium, due ... [details]

 Taxonomy

In the absence of type material Licher (1999: 304) considered the species to be a nomen dubium.  [details]

 Taxonomy

Licher (1999) considered the species as a nomen dubium, as the type material did not enable a redescription.  [details]

 Taxonomy

Licher (1999: 305) in the absence of type material considered the species to be a nomen dubium.  [details]

 Taxonomy

San Martín (1992) first and Licher (1999) later revised the type material and considered the species to be synonym ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Hartman (1959: 227), considered Syllis macroura as being possibly Opisthosyllis australis Augener, 1913. In the ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Moved to genus Typosyllis by Licher (1999) but considered nowadays to belong to Syllis.  [details]

 Taxonomy

Current taxon junior synonym of species listed. According to Licher (1999: 306) the species should be considered as ... [details]

 Taxonomy

According to Licher (1999: 307) the species is not a syllid, being the holotype an epitoke form with hypertrophied ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Licher (1999) considered the species as nomen dubium. The holotype is in poor condition, with the soft tissues ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Species uncertain. Augener (1913) stated that Syllis solida was very similar to Branchiosyllis exilis (Gravier, ... [details]

 Taxonomy

The species was considered as a possible synonym of Syllis variegata Grube, 1860 by Augener (1913: 190-192; 1922: ... [details]

 Type locality

Philippine Islands. Grube (1878: VII) comments that probably Syllis nigrescens was collected in Singapore, but ... [details]

 Type locality

Pacific Ocean: Tern Island, French Frigate Shoals (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands).  [details]

 Type locality

Egypt (marine), Dahab, El Kura Bay (geocoordinates not provided, but estimated with gazetteer to be approximately ... [details]

 Type locality

Mauritania (marine), Banc d' Arguin, about 100 km south of the city of Nouadhibou (geocoordinates not provided, but ... [details]

 Type locality

Pacific Ocean, Japan. The species was described with base on specimens from several different localities in Japan. ... [details]

 Type locality

Atlantic Ocean, northwestern section, deep slope off New England, Atlantic coast of the USA (39º43.6'N, 70º37.4'W).  [details]

 Type locality

Taiwan (marine), Liu-chiu-yu (22º20'30"N, 120º22'00"E).  [details]

 Type material

The type material was not studied or located by Licher (1999: 300).  [details]

 Type material

The type material was not located by Licher (1999: 45). However, the NHM, Wien, holds 6 specimens (NHMW 668) ... [details]

 Type material

Not found by Licher (1999), probably lost.  [details]

 Type material

The type material includes only the holotype, mounted in a slide. It was initially deposited at the collections of ... [details]

 Type material

Type material unavailable, probably lost, not located by Licher (1999: 304). [details]

 Type material

The type material was not found by Licher (1999: 304).  [details]

 Type material

Type material not found by Licher (1999: 304), who considered it to be probably lost.  [details]

 Type material

Holotype deposited at the MPW (No. 393). The specimen dried (Wiktor, 1980), and Licher (1999) considered the ... [details]

 Type material

Grube (1878) refers the collection of 4 specimens from Aibuhit (maybe Aimellik?; Palau Islands) and Camiguin ... [details]

 Type material

Type material not found by Licher (1999: 305), who considered it to be probably lost. [details]

 Type material

The species was described with base on specimens from 3 different locations: Veli Lošinj (Lussin Grande), Nerezine ... [details]

 Type material

Syntypes (2) deposited at the Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien, Austria: NHMW 618.  [details]

 Type material

Licher (1999) did not find the type material, it might have been lost.  [details]

 Type material

Type material not found by Licher (1999: 306).  [details]

 Type material

Holotype deposited at the MPW (No. 397), in two fragments.  [details]

 Type material

Paratypes USNM 75308 and USNM 75312 of Syllis ortizi San Martín, 1992 were considered as being Typosyllis ... [details]

 Type material

Syntype deposited at the MPW (No. 398), in two fragments.  [details]

 Type material

Licher (1999) was not able to locate the type material.  [details]

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