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Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M. (2003). Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review. 41: 47-114.
4179
Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M
2003
Antarctic marine benthic diversity
Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review
41: 47-114
Publication
An unpublished species checklist compiled for background to this paper was used as basis for the Register of Antarctic Marine Species. The paper itself contains no species lists.
Ant'Phipoda Literature database.
Species lists have been compiled for all the major groups of Southern Ocean benthic marine invertebrates, eliminating synonymies where possible and providing a subjective estimate of completeness and reliability for each group. Antarctic marine diversity (pelagic and benthic) is relatively high at the phylum and class level, with the gaps mostly comprising minor, meiofaunal or parasitic groups. Most benthic diversity data come from the continental shelves, with relatively few samples from deeper water. Even for the continental shelves, however, sampling is highly patchy with some areas hardly investigated at all. Over 4100 benthic species have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with the most speciose groups being polychaetes, gastropods and amphipods. Comparison with tropical and temperate regions suggest that decapods, bivalves and teleost fishes are poorly represented in the Southern Ocean benthic marine fauna, whereas pycnogonids, echinoderms and many suspension feeding groups are rich and diverse. Some groups that are currently low in diversity were previously well represented in the Antarctic shallow water marine fauna, notably decapods and many fishes. Other groups have undergone marked radiations in the Southern Ocean, including pycnogonids, amphipods, isopods and teleost fishes; in all cases, however, it is only some lineages that have diversified. This indicates that evolutionary questions concerning the origin, diversification or extinction of the Southern Ocean marine fauna will have no single answer; the evolutionary history of each group appears to reflect a different response to the tectonic, climatic and oceanographic changes to which they have been subject through history. The disposition of southern hemisphere continents makes it difficult to assess whether there is a latitudinal cline in shallow-water marine diversity to mirror that known from the northern hemisphere. Within Antarctica, many species appear to have circumpolar distributions, and the long established biogeographical division into continental Antarctic, Antarctic Peninsula and sub-Antarctic regions have not been challenged by recent sampling. For most groups the frequency distribution of species per genus ratios is typical, though none is well described by the predictions from current evolutionary or null models. Where data are available, size spectra indicate that many Southern Ocean taxa are small, a few spectacular examples of gigantism notwithstanding, and species abundance plots are normal. Knowledge of the Southern Ocean benthic marine fauna has reached a stage where we can now ask powerful evolutionary questions, and the development of new molecular techniques provides the mechanism for answering them
Antarctic
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
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Acodontaster Verrill, 1899 (basis of record)
Acodontaster elongatus (Sladen, 1889) (basis of record)
Alcyonidium J.V.F.Lamouroux, 1813 (additional source)
Ammotrypane breviata Ehlers, 1913 accepted as Ophelina breviata (Ehlers, 1913) (basis of record)
Amphiblestrum Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Amphiporidae Oersted, 1844 (additional source)
Amphiporus Ehrenberg, 1831 (additional source)
Anasca accepted as Flustrina (additional source)
Anasterias Perrier, 1875 (basis of record)
Aricidea (Allia) Strelzov, 1973 accepted as Aricidea (Strelzovia) Aguirrezabalaga, 2012 (additional source)
Bathybiaster loripes Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Beania Johnston, 1840 (additional source)
Beaniidae Canu & Bassler, 1927 (additional source)
Bowerbankia Farre, 1837 accepted as Amathia Lamouroux, 1812 (additional source)
Bryozoa (additional source)
Buffonellaria Canu & Bassler, 1927 (additional source)
Bugula Oken, 1815 (additional source)
Bugulidae Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Caberea Lamouroux, 1816 (additional source)
Calloporidae Norman, 1903 (additional source)
Carbasea Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Celleporella Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Celleporidae Johnston, 1838 (additional source)
Ceratonereis (Composetia) Hartmann-Schröder, 1985 represented as Composetia Hartmann-Schröder, 1985 (basis of record)
Cheilostomatida (additional source)
Conchoderma auritum (Linnaeus, 1767) (additional source)
Cosmasterias Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Cosmasterias lurida (Philippi, 1858) (basis of record)
Cribrilinidae Hincks, 1879 (additional source)
Cycethra Bell, 1881 (basis of record)
Cycethra verrucosa (Philippi, 1857) (basis of record)
Cyclostomatida incertae sedis (basis of record)
Defrancia Bronn, 1825 accepted as Apsendesia Lamouroux, 1821 (additional source)
Desmophyllum cristagalli Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848 accepted as Desmophyllum dianthus (Esper, 1794) (additional source)
Diplasterias Perrier, 1891 (basis of record)
Electra Lamouroux, 1816 (additional source)
Electridae d'Orbigny, 1851 (additional source)
Escharella Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Exidmonea David, Mongereau & Pouyet, 1972 (basis of record)
Flustridae Fleming, 1828 (additional source)
Gaussaster Ludwig, 1910 (basis of record)
Gaussaster antarcticus (Sladen, 1889) (basis of record)
Golfingia (Golfingia) Lankester, 1885 (basis of record)
Golfingia (Golfingia) margaritacea (Sars, 1851) (basis of record)
Golfingia (Golfingia) margaritacea margaritacea (Sars, 1851) accepted as Golfingia (Golfingia) margaritacea (Sars, 1851) (basis of record)
Gymnolaemata (additional source)
Hippothoidae Busk, 1859 (additional source)
Hornera Lamouroux, 1821 (additional source)
Hyalinoecia artifex Verrill, 1880 (basis of record)
Idmidronea Canu & Bassler, 1920 (additional source)
Idmidronea atlantica (Forbes in Johnston, 1847) accepted as Exidmonea atlantica (Forbes in Johnston, 1847) (additional source)
Idmonea Lamouroux, 1821 (additional source)
Lacernidae Jullien, 1888 (additional source)
Lepraliellidae Vigneaux, 1949 (additional source)
Limnoriidae White, 1850 (additional source)
Lineidae (additional source)
Lophaster stellans Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Macrostylis G. O. Sars, 1864 (additional source)
Melinnexis Annenkova, 1931 accepted as Melinnopsis McIntosh, 1885 (basis of record)
Microporellidae Hincks, 1879 (additional source)
Microporidae Gray, 1848 (additional source)
Munna Krøyer, 1839 (additional source)
Mycale Gray, 1867 (additional source)
Myxilla Schmidt, 1862 (additional source)
Nannoniscus G. O. Sars, 1870 (additional source)
Notomastus (Clistomastus) Eisig, 1887 accepted as Notomastus M. Sars, 1851 (additional source)
Peribolaster Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Perknaster Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Perknaster sladeni (Perrier, 1891) (basis of record)
Phascolion (Phascolion) Théel, 1875 (basis of record)
Phascolion (Phascolion) strombus (Montagu, 1804) represented as Phascolion (Phascolion) strombus strombus (Montagu, 1804) (basis of record)
Phidoloporidae Gabb & Horn, 1862 (additional source)
Psalidaster Fisher, 1940 (basis of record)
Psalidaster mordax Fisher, 1940 (basis of record)
Pteraster affinis Smith, 1876 (basis of record)
Pteraster stellifer Sladen, 1882 (basis of record)
Remaster Perrier, 1894 (basis of record)
Remaster gourdoni Koehler, 1912 (basis of record)
Rhodine Malmgren, 1865 (additional source)
Schizoporellidae Jullien, 1883 (additional source)
Scrupariidae Busk, 1852 (additional source)
Smilasterias Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Smilasterias triremis (Sladen, 1889) (basis of record)
Smittina Norman, 1903 (additional source)
Smittinidae Levinsen, 1909 (additional source)
Smittoidea Osburn, 1952 (additional source)
Solaster regularis Sladen, 1889 (basis of record)
Stomatopora Bronn, 1825 (additional source)
Tedania Gray, 1867 represented as Tedania (Tedania) Gray, 1867 (additional source)
Tharyx annulosus Hartman, 1965 accepted as Kirkegaardia annulosa (Hartman, 1965) (basis of record)
Tricellaria Fleming, 1828 (additional source)
Tubulipora Lamarck, 1816 (additional source)
Umbonulidae Canu, 1904 (additional source)
 Authority

Author uncertain [details]

 Authority

(Kinberg, 1866) according to RAMS [details]

 Authority

Monniot & Monniot, 1982 [details]

 Authority

RAMS gives this species (Kroyer, 1856) as author [details]

 Authority

Described by Lyman in 1882 [details]

 Authority

(Keferstein, 1863) is mentioned in RAMS [details]

 Authority

RAMS mentions Ehlers, 1875 as author [details]

 Authority

Gambi et al., 1997 found 2 not yet described species: "sp.1" and "sp.2" [details]

 Authority

Ehlers, 1897 according to RAMS [details]

 Authority

Schmarda, 1861 according to RAMS [details]

 Authority

Ehlers, 1874 according to RAMS [details]

 Authority

Mentioned as Kinberg, 1866a in RAMS [details]

 Authority

The authors are uncertain about the authority [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Anoplodactylus belongs to the Pycnogonidae family instead of the Phoxichilidiidae family. [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Ascothorax belongs to the Synagogidae family instead of the Ascothoracidae family. [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Balanus belongs to the Bathylasmatidae family instead of the Balanidae family. [details]

 Classification

Listed under family Pyuridae [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Placed under Subfamily Coninae [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Coronula belongs to the Bathylasmatidae family instead of the Coronulidae family. [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the family Ctenosculidae belongs to the Cirripedia infraclass instead of the Ascothoracida ... [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the family Dendrogastridae belongs to the Cirripedia infraclass instead of the Ascothoracida ... [details]

 Classification

Under Subfamily Cioninae [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the Family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

Genus Escharella is considered by RAMS to belong to the FamilyExochellidae [details]

 Classification

The Genus Escharoides is considered bt RAMS to belong to the Family Exochellidae [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the Family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

Considered by RAMS to belong to the Family Exochellidae [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

Member of the family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Listed under Dimeatidae in Clarke & Johnston (2003). [details]

 Classification

Belongs to the family Arcturidae accoring to RAMS [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Pallenopsis belongs to the Callipallenidae; in the printed version of ERMS, the genus is ... [details]

 Classification

Belongs to family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Placed in family Plicatocrinidae by Clarke & Johnston (2003). [details]

 Classification

belongs to familt Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the Family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the family Synagogidae belongs to the Cirripedia infraclass instead of the Ascothoracida infraclass. [details]

 Classification

Considered to belong to the Family Munnopsidae [details]

 Classification

Belongs to family Arcturidae according to RAMS [details]

 Classification

According to RAMS, the genus Xenobalanus belongs to the Bathylasmatidae family instead of the Coronulidae family. [details]

 Identification

cf. loveni Malmgren, 1865 [details]

 Identification

The authors are uncertain about the Species [details]

 Spelling
 for Actiniaria

Actinaria [details]

 Spelling

Actinidae [details]

 Spelling

Actinoschyphiidae [details]

 Spelling

Spelled as Alyconidum eightsi in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Spelled as Amphlibestrum inermis in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Spelles as Amphiporus gerlachi in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Referred to by RAMS as Biemna chiliensis[details]

 Spelling

Spelled as Camploplites retiformis in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Also spelled Cerebratulus malvidi in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Referred to by RAMS as Coelosphaera appendiculata[details]

 Spelling

In RAMS spelled as Cymodocea australis [details]

 Spelling

commonly misspelled as Dendrophyllidae [details]

 Spelling

Referred to by RAMS as Desmacidon ramosa and by Uriz as Desmacidon ramosus, but corrected for gender of genus name. [details]

 Spelling

Referred to by RAMS as Dolichocantha macrodon[details]

 Spelling

Clarke & Johnston's (2003) list of Antarctic sponges misspelled the (sub-)genus name Ectyomyxilla as Ectomyxilla, ... [details]

 Spelling

This Genus is also spelled Frontoserolils in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Gorgonidae [details]

 Spelling

Spelled Harmothoe (Harmathoe) spinosa in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Spelled Herdmadion in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

In RAMS, this species is spelled "Herdmadion magalhaensi" [details]

 Spelling

Jathrippa [details]

 Spelling

Kophobelemnonidae [details]

 Spelling

As far as is known the genus misspelling 'Leospira' exists only in an unpublished checklist associated with the ... [details]

 Spelling

Referred to by RAMS as Leucoselenia[details]

 Spelling

Referred to by RAMS as Leucoselenia discoveryi[details]

 Spelling

Mogula pedunculata in RAMS checklist [details]

 Spelling

listed as Mogula robini [details]

 Spelling

in RAMS spelled as M. longircollaris [details]

 Spelling

Spelled in RAMS as Pseudoscalibregmida bransfieldia [details]

 Spelling

In RAMS spelled as S.( Leodamus) marginatus mcleani [details]

 Spelling

In RAMS spelled as S. (Leodamus) ohlini [details]

 Spelling

Also spelled T. maikenensis in RAMS [details]

 Spelling

Umbellula thomsonii [details]

 Taxonomy

Belongs to Prosorhochmidae according to RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

A species named A. nr. hastulifera was described by (Fauvel, 1936) in RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

RAMS also mentions a species Autolutus cf. maclearanus [details]

 Taxonomy

RAMS also mentions a species Autolytus cf. simplex [details]

 Taxonomy

Hooper (2002) and Van Soest (2002) in the same volume assign Bipocillopsis as a junior synonym to different genera ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Belongs to Lineidae accoriding to RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

Classified under Onuphidae in RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

Gambi et al., 1997 mentions two not yet described species: sp. 1 and sp. 2 [details]

 Taxonomy

Referred to by RAMS as Geodinella, which is a junior genus name for Geodia according to a checklist provided by Rob ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Gambi et al., 1997 mention a not yet described species, Harmothoe sp.1 [details]

 Taxonomy

The genus Leodora is placed under Serpulidae according to RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

Classified under Iphitimidae [details]

 Taxonomy

Was under Iphitimidae. Palpiphitime is best treated as a species group within Ophyrotrocha according to Wiklund et ... [details]

 Taxonomy

This Genus is placed under Serpulidae in RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

This genus belongs to Lineidae according to RAMS [details]

 Taxonomy

RAMS also mentions a species Pionosyllis cf. comosa [details]

 Taxonomy

Gambi et al., 1997 mentios 2 not yet described species: sp.1 and sp.2 [details]

 Taxonomy

(Hartman, 1978) mentions 3 not yet described species: sp.A, sp. B and sp. C [details]

 Taxonomy

RAMS mentions also a species Sphaerosyllis cf. tetralix[details]

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