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CaRMS source details

Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. Synopses of the British fauna (new series), 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp.
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
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Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1828) (additional source)
Anseropoda placenta (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Asterias rubens Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Asterina phylactica Emson & Crump, 1979 (additional source)
Astropecten irregularis (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Brissopsis lyrifera (Forbes, 1841) (additional source)
Cidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Crossaster papposus (Linnaeus, 1767) (additional source)
Cucumaria frondosa (Gunnerus, 1767) (additional source)
Echinaster (Echinaster) sepositus (Retzius, 1783) (additional source)
Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Echinocardium flavescens (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Echinocardium pennatifidum Norman, 1868 (additional source)
Echinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Echinus acutus Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Gracilechinus acutus (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Echinus elegans Düben & Koren, 1844 accepted as Gracilechinus elegans (Düben & Koren, 1844) (additional source)
Echinus esculentus Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Echinus tenuispinus Norman, 1868 (additional source)
Ekmania barthii (Troschel, 1846) (additional source)
Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Henricia perforata (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Henricia pertusa (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Henricia sanguinolenta (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Hippasteria phrygiana (Parelius, 1768) (additional source)
Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) (additional source)
Leptosynapta inhaerens (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837) (additional source)
Luidia sarsi Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 accepted as Luidia sarsii Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 (additional source)
Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Ophiopholis aculeata (Linnaeus, 1767) (additional source)
Ophiura robusta (Ayres, 1852) (additional source)
Ophiura sarsii Lütken, 1855 (additional source)
Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Porania (Porania) pulvillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Psammechinus miliaris (P.L.S. Müller, 1771) (additional source)
Psolus phantapus (Strussenfelt, 1765) (additional source)
Pteraster militaris (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Pteraster pulvillus M. Sars, 1861 (additional source)
Rhabdomolgus ruber Keferstein, 1862 (additional source)
Solaster endeca (Linnaeus, 1771) (additional source)
Spatangus purpureus O.F. Müller, 1776 (additional source)
Spatangus raschi Lovén, 1869 (additional source)
Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Stichastrella rosea (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) (additional source)
Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) (additional source)
Thyone inermis Heller, 1868 (additional source)
Thyonidium drummondii (Thompson, 1840) (additional source)
Adriatic Sea for Asterina phylactica Emson & Crump, 1979 
Arctic Ocean for Asterias rubens Linnaeus, 1758 
Arctic Ocean for Crossaster papposus (Linnaeus, 1767) 
Arctic Ocean for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) 
Arctic Ocean for Ophiopholis aculeata (Linnaeus, 1767) 
Arctic Ocean for Ophiura robusta (Ayres, 1852) 
Arctic Ocean for Ophiura sarsii Lütken, 1855 
Arctic Ocean for Pteraster militaris (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Arctic Ocean for Pteraster pulvillus M. Sars, 1861 
Arctic Ocean for Solaster endeca (Linnaeus, 1771) 
Arctic Ocean for Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Arctic Ocean for Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) 
Atlantic Coast of France for Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) 
Azores for Anseropoda placenta (Pennant, 1777) 
Azores for Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) 
Azores for Echinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Azores for Luidia sarsi Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 
Azores for Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1828) 
British Isles for Asterias rubens Linnaeus, 1758 
British Isles for Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Astropecten irregularis (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Brissopsis lyrifera (Forbes, 1841) 
British Isles for Cidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Cidaris cidaris (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Crossaster papposus (Linnaeus, 1767) 
British Isles for Echinaster (Echinaster) sepositus (Retzius, 1783) 
British Isles for Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Echinocardium flavescens (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Echinocardium pennatifidum Norman, 1868 
British Isles for Echinocyamus pusillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Echinus esculentus Linnaeus, 1758 
British Isles for Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Henricia oculata (Pennant, 1777) 
British Isles for Hippasteria phrygiana (Parelius, 1768) 
British Isles for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) 
British Isles for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri celtica A.M. Clark in Clark & Downey, 1992 
British Isles for Leptosynapta inhaerens (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837) 
British Isles for Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837) 
British Isles for Luidia sarsi Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 
British Isles for Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) 
British Isles for Ophiopholis aculeata (Linnaeus, 1767) 
British Isles for Ophiopholis aculeata (Linnaeus, 1767) 
British Isles for Porania (Porania) pulvillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Porania (Porania) pulvillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Porania (Porania) pulvillus (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Psammechinus miliaris (P.L.S. Müller, 1771) 
British Isles for Psolus phantapus (Strussenfelt, 1765) 
British Isles for Solaster endeca (Linnaeus, 1771) 
British Isles for Solaster endeca (Linnaeus, 1771) 
British Isles for Spatangus purpureus O.F. Müller, 1776 
British Isles for Spatangus raschi Lovén, 1869 
British Isles for Spatangus raschi Lovén, 1869 
British Isles for Stichastrella rosea (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
British Isles for Thyonidium drummondii (Thompson, 1840)  (doubtful)
Canada for Ekmania barthii (Troschel, 1846) 
Canary Islands for Anseropoda placenta (Pennant, 1777) 
Canary Islands for Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) 
Cape Verde for Astropecten irregularis (Pennant, 1777) 
Cape Verde for Echinaster (Echinaster) sepositus (Retzius, 1783) 
Cape Verde for Marthasterias glacialis (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Cape Verde for Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck, 1816)  (inaccurate)
Celtic Sea for Psolus phantapus (Strussenfelt, 1765) 
Central North Sea for Hippasteria phrygiana (Parelius, 1768) 
Channel Islands for Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) 
Channel Islands for Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck, 1816) 
Clyde Sea for Psolus phantapus (Strussenfelt, 1765) 
Clyde Sea for Thyonidium drummondii (Thompson, 1840) 
Cornwall for Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) 
Denmark for Ekmania barthii (Troschel, 1846) 
Denmark for Henricia perforata (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Denmark for Henricia sanguinolenta (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Denmark for Ophiura sarsii Lütken, 1855 
Denmark for Psolus phantapus (Strussenfelt, 1765) 
Devon for Leptosynapta inhaerens (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Devon for Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) 
Doggersbank for Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846) 
Dorset for Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) 
East Coast of United States of America for Henricia sanguinolenta (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
East Greenland for Cucumaria frondosa (Gunnerus, 1767) 
English Channel for Anseropoda placenta (Pennant, 1777) 
English Channel for Astropecten irregularis (Pennant, 1777) 
English Channel for Echinocardium pennatifidum Norman, 1868 
English Channel for Luidia sarsi Düben & Koren in Düben, 1844 
Faroe Islands for Cucumaria frondosa (Gunnerus, 1767) 
Faroe Islands for Henricia perforata (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Faroe Islands for Henricia sanguinolenta (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Faroe Islands for Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Greenland for Ekmania barthii (Troschel, 1846) 
Greenland for Henricia perforata (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Greenland for Hippasteria phrygiana (Parelius, 1768) 
Greenland for Psolus phantapus (Strussenfelt, 1765) 
Greenland for Thyonidium drummondii (Thompson, 1840) 
Iceland for Cucumaria frondosa (Gunnerus, 1767) 
Iceland for Ekmania barthii (Troschel, 1846) 
Iceland for Henricia perforata (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
Iceland for Henricia sanguinolenta (O.F. Müller, 1776) 
 Authority

(Forbes M.S. in Thompson, 1840) [details]

 Authority

Ayres, 1851 [details]

 Authority

Koren, 1844 [details]

 Authority

M. Sars, 1861 [details]

 Authority

(Gunnerus, 1767) [details]

 Breeding

Hermaphrodite, possibly self-fertilising, viviparous. May-September? [details]

 Breeding

Yolky eggs. Spring [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Autumn. [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Eggs, attached to genital pinnules, hatch to barrel-shaped ciliated larva; settlement stage is pentacrinoid. All ... [details]

 Breeding

Eggs, shed freely, larvae and pentacrinoid as in A. bifida[details]

 Breeding

Planktonic bipinnaria and brachilaria larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Protandrous hermaphrodite; eggs are laid in creviices, but are not brooded. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Simultaneous hermaphrodite. Eggs are laid in masses and are brooded for three weeks under the humped body. May-June. [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs, probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Bipinnaria larva. Summer. [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva [details]

 Breeding

Direct development? Winter [details]

 Breeding

Barrel - shaped, red larvae. Early spring [details]

 Breeding

Large red eggs. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Mature early summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer - autumn [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Early sumer [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs; probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Eggs released, larvae not known. Juveniles of the Arctic species G. eucnemis are known to live on, or in, the ... [details]

 Breeding

Lecithotrophic, probaly planktonic larva. Spring [details]

 Breeding

Probably involves planktonic larva [details]

 Breeding

Probably involving planktonic larva [details]

 Breeding

Broods young. Spring [details]

 Breeding

Auricularia larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Yolky eggs, probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Yolky eggs, probably direct development [details]

 Breeding

Auricularia larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Broods young in spring [details]

 Breeding

Doliolatia larva [details]

 Breeding

Doliolaria larva. Spring [details]

 Breeding

Viviparous, can contain several developing young [details]

 Breeding

Bipinnaria larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Bipinnaria larva. Winter-spring. [details]

 Breeding

Hermaphrodite. Planktonic brachiloraia larva. Spring - summer [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs, probable direct development [details]

 Breeding

Can reproduce by fission [details]

 Breeding

Doliolaria larva [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophipluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva [details]

 Breeding

Mature in summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Spring - Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. April-May [details]

 Breeding

Probably ophiopluteus larva [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Brachiolaria larva. Spring. [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Spring to autumn [details]

 Breeding

Non-feeding barrel-shaped red larva. February - March [details]

 Breeding

Brood young under membrane [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Probably planktonic larva. Summer [details]

 Breeding

Auricularia larva [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. January to May [details]

 Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. February to May [details]

 Breeding

Large eggs; non-pelagic development [details]

 Distribution

Intertidal to more than 200 m depth. Common along algae in tidepools and damp places , and under stones in gravel, ... [details]

 Distribution

From the intertidal to about 40 m depth, deeply buried in sand or muddy sand, with some of the arm tips reaching ... [details]

 Distribution

In depths of 50 to more than 200 m, burrowing in sand or muddy sand, all round the British Isles, but rare in the ... [details]

 Distribution

From 5 to more than 200 m depth, in muddy sand or mud, all round the British Isles, except, possibly, the southeast [details]

 Distribution

At about 10 to 20 m depth, in sand, Galway Bay (Ireland) and Plymouth (southwest England); probably overlooked elsewhere [details]

 Distribution

In depths of 10 to 500 m, on gravel, sand, mud and ocassionally rock; English Channel, Irish Sea, rare off western ... [details]

 Distribution

SW Iceland to the Faroe Islands and Scandinavia (Trondhjemsfjord S along the Norwegian and W Swedish coasts to ... [details]

 Distribution

Low intertidal to about 30 m depth,under stones and in crevices; in the Channel Islands and along the western ... [details]

 Distribution

Lower shore to more than 200 m depth, on rock gravel and sand; very common all round the British Isles [details]

 Distribution

From the lower shore to about 125 m depth, on rocky shores, under overhangs, under stones and in rock pools, ... [details]

 Distribution

Occurs in large, deep, high-level rock pools on fairly exposed shores; less common in lower pools and sublittoral. ... [details]

 Distribution

In more than 100 m depth, clinging to sea pens and gorgonians towards the edge of the continental shelf and in some ... [details]

 Distribution

Sublittoral to more than 200 m depth; lives buried in sand or muddy sand, all around the British Isles except for ... [details]

 Distribution

In depths of more than 130 m, on gravel, stones and coral, to the north and west ofo the British Isles [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to more than 200 m depth, mainly on coarse sand and gravel, all round the British Isles [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to more than 200 m depth, among rocks, stones and seaweed; northern Scotland, Orkeny, Shetland and ... [details]

 Distribution

Not known at the present from the British Isles but may be expected to arrive in southern England and Ireland. ... [details]

 Distribution

Lower shore and subtidal to 200 m depth, burrowing in sand or muddy sand, all round the British Isles. Apparently ... [details]

 Distribution

From low on shore to 150 m depth, burrowing in coarse sand or fine shell gravel, around western coasts from the ... [details]

 Distribution

Sublittoral to more than 200 m depth, in coarse sand and fine gravel, common all around British Isles [details]

 Distribution

Deeper than 200 m, on stones and gravel. Vars flemingii and norvegicus occur in the western Channel, off western ... [details]

 Distribution

A deep water species, found occasionally between 100 and 200 m near the edge of the continental shelf to the west ... [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal, but mainly in the sublittoral zone, down to 40 m depth, occasionally deeper, on rocks, stones ... [details]

 Distribution

At the edge of the continental shelf in depths of 130 m to 200 m, to the west of Ireland and around Shetland [details]

 Distribution

Not recorded from British waters, but likely to occur in the North Sea, Shetland and Orkney. Sublittoral to 100 m depth. [details]

 Distribution

In depths of more than 150 m, on rough ground where currents are strong, off northern Scotland, the Orkneys and ... [details]

 Distribution

Juveniles are known to live on, or in, the polyps of alvyonarians (Patent, 1970) [details]

 Distribution

The commonest species of Henricia around the British Isles, occuring from low intertidal to at least 50 m depth, on ... [details]

 Distribution

In depths of 20 to more than 200 m, northern North Sea and possibly Shetland [details]

 Distribution

In depths of more than 100 m in the northern North Sea and near Shetland, possibly extending as far south as Biscay. [details]

 Distribution

From low intertidal to 50 m depth, typical of the algal zone. British distribution not completely known, but it ... [details]

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