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Zenetos, A.; Gofas, S.; Verlaque, M.; Cinar, M.; Garcia Raso, J.; Bianchi, C.; Morri, C.; Azzurro, E.; Bilecenoglu, M.; Froglia, C.; Siokou, I.; Violanti, D.; Sfriso, A.; San Martin, G.; Giangrande, A.; Katagan, T.; Ballesteros, E.; Ramos-Espla, A.; Mastrototaro, F.; Ocana, O.; Zingone, A.; Gambi, M.; Streftaris, N. (2010). Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part I. Spatial distribution. Mediterranean Marine Science. 11(2): 381-493.
155063
10.12681/mms.87 [view]
Zenetos, A.; Gofas, S.; Verlaque, M.; Cinar, M.; Garcia Raso, J.; Bianchi, C.; Morri, C.; Azzurro, E.; Bilecenoglu, M.; Froglia, C.; Siokou, I.; Violanti, D.; Sfriso, A.; San Martin, G.; Giangrande, A.; Katagan, T.; Ballesteros, E.; Ramos-Espla, A.; Mastrototaro, F.; Ocana, O.; Zingone, A.; Gambi, M.; Streftaris, N.
2010
Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part I. Spatial distribution
Mediterranean Marine Science
11(2): 381-493
Publication
The state-of-art on alien species in the Mediterranean Sea is presented, making distinctions among the four subregions defined in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive: (i) the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMED); (ii) the Central Mediterranean Sea (CMED); (iii) the Adriatic Sea (ADRIA); and (iv) the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED). The updated checklist (December 2010) of marine alien species within each subregion, along with their acclimatization status and origin, is provided. A total of 955 alien species is known in the Mediterranean, the vast majority of them having being introduced in the EMED (718), less in the WMED (328) and CMED (267) and least in the Adriatic (171). Of these, 535 species (56%) are established in at least one area. Despite the collective effort of experts who attempted in this work, the number of introduced species remains probably underestimated. Excluding microalgae, for which knowledge is still insufficient, aliens have increased the total species richness of the Mediterranean Sea by 5.9%. This figure should not be directly read as an indication of higher biodiversity, as spreading of so many aliens within the basin is possibly causing biotic homogenization. Thermophilic species, i.e. Indo-Pacific, Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Tropical Atlantic, Tropical Pacific, and circum(sub)tropical, account for 88.4% of the introduced species in the EMED, 72.8% in the CMED, 59.3% in the WMED and 56.1% in the Adriatic. Cold water species, i.e. circumboreal, N Atlantic, and N Pacific, make up a small percentage of the introduced species, ranging between 4.2% and 21.6% and being more numerous in the Adriatic and less so in the EMED. Species that are classified as invasive or potentially invasive are 134 in the whole of the Mediterranean: 108 are present in the EMED, 75 in the CMED, 53 in the Adriatic and 64 in the WMED. The WMED hosts most invasive macrophytes, whereas the EMED has the lion’s share in polychaetes, crustaceans, molluscs and fish.
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Acartia (Acanthacartia) tonsa Dana, 1849 (additional source)
Acrothrix gracilis Kylin, 1907 (additional source)
Aeverrillia setigera (Hincks, 1887) (additional source)
Agardhiella subulata (C.Agardh) Kraft & M.J.Wynne, 1979 (additional source)
Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Amphibalanus eburneus (Gould, 1841) (additional source)
Anadara transversa (Say, 1822) (additional source)
Anarhichas lupus Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Aquilonastra burtoni (Gray, 1840) (additional source)
Asterias rubens Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Beryx splendens Lowe, 1834 (additional source)
Bonnemaisonia hamifera Hariot, 1891 (additional source)
Bugula fulva Ryland, 1960 accepted as Bugulina fulva (Ryland, 1960) (additional source)
Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 (additional source)
Carcharhinus altimus (Springer, 1950) (additional source)
Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle, 1839) (additional source)
Centropages furcatus (Dana, 1849) (additional source)
Chaunax suttkusi Caruso, 1989 (additional source)
Cheilopogon furcatus (Mitchill, 1815) (additional source)
Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Chorda filum (Linnaeus) Stackhouse, 1797 (additional source)
Cladosiphon zosterae (J.Agardh) Kylin, 1940 (additional source)
Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot, 1889 (additional source)
Cordylophora caspia (Pallas, 1771) (additional source)
Cyclopterus lumpus Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Desmarestia viridis (O.F.Müller) J.V.Lamouroux, 1813 (additional source)
Diodon hystrix Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Dispio uncinata Hartman, 1951 (additional source)
Dyspanopeus sayi (Smith, 1869) (additional source)
Etrumeus teres (DeKay, 1842) (additional source)
Eucidaris tribuloides (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Eudendrium carneum Clarke, 1882 (additional source)
Farfantepenaeus aztecus (Ives, 1891) accepted as Penaeus aztecus Ives, 1891 (additional source)
Fucus spiralis Linnaeus, 1753 (additional source)
Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur, 1822) (additional source)
Garveia franciscana (Torrey, 1902) (additional source)
Gonionemus vertens A. Agassiz, 1862 (additional source)
Haliplanella lineata (Verrill, 1869) accepted as Diadumene lineata (Verrill, 1869) (additional source)
Halothrix lumbricalis (Kützing) Reinke, 1888 (additional source)
Hemigrapsus sanguineus (De Haan, 1835) (additional source)
Hydroides dianthus (Verrill, 1873) (additional source)
Isolda pulchella Müller in Grube, 1858 (additional source)
Isurus paucus Guitart, 1966 (additional source)
Kyphosus incisor (Cuvier, 1831) (additional source)
Kyphosus sectator (Linnaeus, 1758) accepted as Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Leathesia marina (Lyngbye) Decaisne, 1842 (additional source)
Libinia dubia H. Milne Edwards, 1834 (additional source)
Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792) (additional source)
Loimia medusa (Savigny, 1822) (additional source)
Longibrachium atlanticum (Day, 1973) (additional source)
Lutjanus jocu (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) (additional source)
Mercenaria mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Microspongium tenuissimum (Hauck) A.F.Peters, 2003 accepted as Microspongium stilophorae (P.L.Crouan & H.M.Crouan) Cormaci & G.Furnari, 2012 (additional source)
Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz, 1865 (additional source)
Mya arenaria Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Neosiphonia harveyi (Bailey) M.-S.Kim, H.-G.Choi, Guiry & G.W.Saunders, 2001 accepted as Melanothamnus harveyi (Bailey) Díaz-Tapia & Maggs, 2017 (additional source)
Paracalanus indicus Wolfenden, 1905 (additional source)
Parvocalanus crassirostris (Dahl F., 1894) (additional source)
Petricola pholadiformis Lamarck, 1818 accepted as Petricolaria pholadiformis (Lamarck, 1818) (additional source)
Platax teira (Forsskål, 1775) (additional source)
Polycerella emertoni A. E. Verrill, 1880 (additional source)
Polydora cornuta Bosc, 1802 (additional source)
Polysiphonia fucoides (Hudson) Greville, 1824 accepted as Vertebrata fucoides (Hudson) Kuntze, 1891 (additional source)
Polysiphonia stricta (Mertens ex Dillwyn) Greville, 1824 (additional source)
Porphyra yezoensis Ueda, 1932 accepted as Pyropia yezoensis (Ueda) M.S.Hwang & H.G.Choi, 2011 (additional source)
Psenes pellucidus Lütken, 1880 (additional source)
Pseudocalanus elongatus (Boeck, 1865) (additional source)
Pulleniatina obliquiloculata (Parker & Jones, 1862) (additional source)
Punctaria tenuissima (C.Agardh) Greville, 1830 (additional source)
Pylaiella littoralis (Linnaeus) Kjellman, 1872 (additional source)
Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus, 1766) (additional source)
Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould, 1841) (additional source)
Rhodophysema georgei Batters, 1900 (additional source)
Scytosiphon dotyi M.J.Wynne, 1969 (additional source)
Seriola fasciata (Bloch, 1793) (additional source)
Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes, 1833 (additional source)
Solieria filiformis (Kützing) P.W.Gabrielson, 1985 (additional source)
Sphoeroides pachygaster (Müller & Troschel, 1848) (additional source)
Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell, 1837) (additional source)
Teredo navalis Linnaeus, 1758 (additional source)
Trichydra pudica Wright, 1857 (additional source)
Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur, 1821) represented as Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (Péron & Lesueur, 1821) (additional source)
Ulvaria obscura (Kützing) P.Gayral ex C.Bliding, 1969 (additional source)
Zenopsis conchifera (Lowe, 1852) accepted as Zenopsis conchifer (Lowe, 1852) (additional source)
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