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Cárdenas, P.; Xavier, J.R.; Reveillaud, J.; Schander, C.; Rapp, H.T. (2011). Molecular Phylogeny of the Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiaep) Reveals an Unexpected High Level of Spicule Homoplasy. PLoS ONE. 6 (4), e18318.
150540
10.1371/journal.pone.0018318 [view]
Cárdenas, P.; Xavier, J.R.; Reveillaud, J.; Schander, C.; Rapp, H.T.
2011
Molecular Phylogeny of the Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiaep) Reveals an Unexpected High Level of Spicule Homoplasy
PLoS ONE
6 (4), e18318
Publication
Background: The Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiaep) is geographically and bathymetrically widely distributed. Systema Porifera currently includes five families in this order: Ancorinidae, Calthropellidae, Geodiidae, Pachastrellidae and Thrombidae. To date, molecular phylogenetic studies including Astrophorida species are scarce and offer limited sampling. Phylogenetic relationships within this order are therefore for the most part unknown and hypotheses based on morphology largely untested. Astrophorida taxa have very diverse spicule sets that make them a model of choice to investigate spicule evolution. Methodology/Principal Findings: With a sampling of 153 specimens (9 families, 29 genera, 89 species) covering the deep and shallow-waters worldwide, this work presents the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Astrophorida, using a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene partial sequence and the 59 end terminal part of the 28S rDNA gene (C1-D2 domains). The resulting tree suggested that i) the Astrophorida included some lithistid families and some Alectonidae species, ii) the sub-orders Euastrophorida and Streptosclerophorida were both polyphyletic, iii) the Geodiidae, the Ancorinidae and the Pachastrellidae were not monophyletic, iv) the Calthropellidae was part of the Geodiidae clade (Calthropella at least), and finally that v) many genera were polyphyletic (Ecionemia, Erylus, Poecillastra, Penares, Rhabdastrella, Stelletta and Vulcanella). Conclusion: The Astrophorida is a larger order than previously considered, comprising ca. 820 species. Based on these results, we propose new classifications for the Astrophorida using both the classical rank-based nomenclature (i.e., Linnaean classification) and the phylogenetic nomenclature following the PhyloCode, independent of taxonomic rank. A key to the Astrophorida families, sub-families and genera incertae sedis is also included. Incongruences between our molecular tree and the current classification can be explained by the banality of convergent evolution and secondary loss in spicule evolution. These processes have taken place many times, in all the major clades, for megascleres and microscleres.
Phylogeny, Phylogenesis
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
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Alectona Carter, 1879 (additional source)
Calthropella geodioides (Carter, 1876) represented as Calthropella (Calthropella) geodioides (Carter, 1876) (additional source)
Calthropellidae Lendenfeld, 1907 (source of synonymy)
Geodia phlegraei (Sollas, 1880) (source of synonymy)
Geodiinae Gray, 1867 (additional source)
Pachastrellidae Carter, 1875 (basis of record)
Penares Gray, 1867 (additional source)
Poecillastra Sollas, 1888 (additional source)
Sidonops Sollas, 1889 accepted as Geodia Lamarck, 1815 (source of synonymy)
Sphinctrella Schmidt, 1870 accepted as Vulcanella Sollas, 1886 (source of synonymy)
Tethyopsis Stewart, 1870 (additional source)
Theneidae Gray, 1872 (status source)
Thoosidae Cockerell, 1925 (additional source)
Vulcanella Sollas, 1886 (source of synonymy)
Vulcanella gracilis (Sollas, 1888) (source of synonymy)
Vulcanellidae Cárdenas, Xavier, Reveillaud, Schander & Rapp, 2011 (original description)
 Taxonomy

Acanthotriaena is clearly an Astrophorid species. For the time being, we allocated it to Pachastrellidae even if ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Ancorella is clearly an Astrophorid species. For the time being, we allocated it to Pachastrellidae even if its ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Melophlus sp. had been shown to be grouping with the Geodiidae based on molecular markers (Cárdenas et al., 2011). ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Neamphius is an Astrophorida incertae sedis at the moment. For the time being and for conveniance, we allocated it ... [details]

 Taxonomy

Penares helleri (type species of Penares) has been shown to be a Geodiidae, according to Cárdenas et al 2010 and ... [details]

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