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Kelly, M. (2007). The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Porifera: lithistid Demospongiae (Rock Sponges). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir. 121: 1-100.
43022
Kelly, M.
2007
The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Porifera: lithistid Demospongiae (Rock Sponges).
NIWA Biodiversity Memoir
121: 1-100.
Publication
The lithistid Demospongiae fauna of New Zealand has been inventoried from existing and new collections, and is reviewed here and revised where necessary. Most of the 282 specimens examined were recorded from the largest collection of sponges in New Zealand, in the NIWA Invertebrate Collection, Wellington. Significant collections were also examined from the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. The lithistid Demospongiae (formerly order Lithistida Schmidt, 1870) is represented in the New Zealand region by nine families, 18 genera (one of which is new to science), and 30 species (12 of which are new to science): Theonellidae (1 genus, 1 species), Phymatellidae (3 genera, 6 species), Corallistidae (3 genera, 7 species), Neopeltidae (4 genera, 4 species), Macandrewiidae (1 genus, 1 species), Pleromidae (1 genus, 3 species), Isoraphiniidae (1 genus, 1 species), Scleritodermiidae (3 genera, 5 species), and Azoriciidae (1 genus, 2 species). This work records the first lithistid species, Neoschrammeniella antarctica n. sp., known from polar regions, and provides the first record of the genus Leiodermatium further south than the Philippines. Two additional species of Leiodermatium described here are found only in the west-central Pacific and Micronesian deep waters, but are included for the sake of a complete review of the genus in the Pacific. New species of the previously monospecific phymatellid genera Neoaulaxinia and Neosiphonia are described, and a new corallistid genus, Awhiowhio, is recognised from New Zealand waters. All specimens were dredged from between 80 and 1700 m, but were commonest between 200 and 800 m. With the exception of one specimen from the eastern edge of the Challenger Plateau on New Zealand’s west coast, and a new species from the Ross Sea, Antarctica, all were found north of the southern edge of the Chatham Rise and in New Zealand’s northernmost waters. Known and new species are redescribed from representative New Zealand material and, in some cases, the characters used to define genera and species are redefined and clarified. In particular, ornamentation of the desma skeleton and morphology of the augmenting microscleres are emphasised for distinction at the species level.
New Zealand
Systematics, Taxonomy
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Central New Zealand for Reidispongia coerulea Lévi & Lévi, 1988 
Chatham Island for Awhiowhio sepulchrum Kelly, 2007 
Chatham Island for Neoaulaxinia persicum Kelly, 2007 
Kermadec Islands for Neoaulaxinia persicum Kelly, 2007 
Kermadec Islands for Neosiphonia superstes Sollas, 1888 
Kermadec Islands for Pleroma menoui Lévi & Lévi, 1983 
Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands for Costifer wilsoni Lévi, 1993 
Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands for Neoschrammeniella fulvodesmus (Lévi & Lévi, 1983) 
New Caledonia for Costifer wilsoni Lévi, 1993 
New Caledonia for Discodermia proliferans Lévi & Lévi, 1983 
New Caledonia for Herengeria vasiformis Schlacher-Hoenlinger, Pisera & Hooper, 2005 
New Caledonia for Neoaulaxinia clavata (Lévi & Lévi, 1988) 
New Caledonia for Pleroma turbinatum Sollas, 1888 
New Zealand-Kermadec Lower Bathyal Province for Aciculites pulchra Dendy, 1924 
New Zealand-Kermadec Lower Bathyal Province for Discodermia proliferans Lévi & Lévi, 1983 
New Zealand-Kermadec Lower Bathyal Province for Herengeria auriculata Lévi & Lévi, 1988 
New Zealand-Kermadec Lower Bathyal Province for Herengeria auriculata Lévi & Lévi, 1988 
New Zealand-Kermadec Lower Bathyal Province for Neoschrammeniella fulvodesmus (Lévi & Lévi, 1983) 
New Zealand-Kermadec Lower Bathyal Province for Scleritoderma flabelliformis Sollas, 1888 
Northeastern New Zealand for Aciculites pulchra Dendy, 1924 
Northeastern New Zealand for Aciculites pulchra Dendy, 1924 
Northeastern New Zealand for Costifer wilsoni Lévi, 1993 
Northeastern New Zealand for Discodermia proliferans Lévi & Lévi, 1983 
Northeastern New Zealand for Herengeria vasiformis Schlacher-Hoenlinger, Pisera & Hooper, 2005 
Northeastern New Zealand for Herengeria vasiformis Schlacher-Hoenlinger, Pisera & Hooper, 2005 
Northeastern New Zealand for Neoaulaxinia clavata (Lévi & Lévi, 1988) 
Northeastern New Zealand for Neoaulaxinia persicum Kelly, 2007 
Northeastern New Zealand for Neoaulaxinia persicum Kelly, 2007 
Northeastern New Zealand for Neosiphonia motukawanui Kelly, 2007 
Northeastern New Zealand for Neosiphonia superstes Sollas, 1888 
Northeastern New Zealand for Reidispongia coerulea Lévi & Lévi, 1988 
Northern New Zealand for Pleroma aotea Kelly, 2003 
Tweed-Moreton for Neoaulaxinia persicum Kelly, 2007 
Holotype NIWA 18125, geounit Northeastern New Zealand, identified as Neoaulaxinia persicum Kelly, 2007
Holotype NIWA 18261, geounit Northeastern New Zealand, identified as Neosiphonia motukawanui Kelly, 2007
Holotype NIWA 18338, geounit Chatham Island, identified as Awhiowhio sepulchrum Kelly, 2007
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