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Deep-Sea source details

Clark, A.M. & Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp.
6324
Clark, A.M. & Courtman-Stock, J.
1976
The echinoderms of southern Africa
Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp
Publication
This is a key to the Echinoderms of South Africa (except the Holothurians). The area is limited to Capricorn (South-east) and to Walvis bay (South-west). After all the surveys done by H.L. Clark (1923) and Mortensen (1933a, of the Asterozoa), only a small number of new taxa have been discovered. The number of species included is ca. 280.
South Africa
Bathyal, Continental slope
Fauna and Flora, Faunistic inventories, Checklists, Catalogues
Faunistic guides, Identification guides
Systematics, Taxonomy
RIS (EndNote, Reference Manager, ProCite, RefWorks)
BibTex (BibDesk, LaTeX)
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
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Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1828) (additional source)
Amphiura uncinata Koehler, 1904 represented as Amphiura (Amphiura) uncinata Koehler, 1904 (basis of record)
Anseropoda Nardo, 1834 (additional source)
Asteronyx loveni Müller & Troschel, 1842 (basis of record)
Astrothorax waitei (Benham, 1909) (basis of record)
Benthopecten pedicifer (Sladen, 1889) (additional source)
Brisinga cricophora Sladen, 1889 (additional source)
Cladaster macrobrachius H.L. Clark, 1923 (basis of record)
Coelopleurus floridianus A. Agassiz, 1872 accepted as Coelopleurus floridanus A. Agassiz, 1872 (basis of record)
Crossaster penicillatus Sladen, 1889 (additional source)
Dermechinus horridus (A. Agassiz, 1879) (additional source)
Diplopteraster multipes (M. Sars, 1866) (additional source)
Echinocardium Gray, 1825 (additional source)
Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Echinus gilchristi Bell, 1904 (basis of record)
Gorgonocephalus pustulatum (H.L. Clark, 1916) (basis of record)
Hymenaster gennaeus H.L. Clark, 1923 accepted as Hymenaster rex Perrier, 1885 (additional source)
Hymenaster latebrosus Sladen, 1882 (additional source)
Linckia miliaris (Muller & Troschel, 1840) accepted as Linckia laevigata (Linnaeus, 1758) (source of synonymy)
Macrophiothrix longipeda (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Odontaster australis H.L. Clark, 1926 (additional source)
Ophiactis abyssicola (M. Sars, 1861) (additional source)
Ophiocirce inutilis Koehler, 1904 accepted as Ophioleuce seminudum Koehler, 1904 (additional source)
Ophiocten amitinum Lyman, 1878 (additional source)
Ophiocten latens Koehler, 1906 accepted as Ophiocten hastatum Lyman, 1878 (additional source)
Ophiogymna Ljungman, 1866 (basis of record)
Ophiogymna fulgens (Koehler, 1905) accepted as Ophiogymna pellicula (Duncan, 1887) (basis of record)
Ophiogymna pellicula (Duncan, 1887) (basis of record)
Ophiomisidium pulchellum (Wyville Thomson, 1877) (additional source)
Ophiomitrella Verrill, 1899 (additional source)
Ophiomusium lymani Wyville-Thomson, 1873 accepted as Ophiomusa lymani (Wyville Thomson, 1873) (additional source)
Ophioscolex Müller & Troschel, 1842 (additional source)
Ophiura flagellata (Lyman, 1878) (additional source)
Ophiura irrorata (Lyman, 1878) represented as Ophiura (Ophiuroglypha) irrorata (Lyman, 1878) represented as Ophiura (Ophiuroglypha) irrorata irrorata (Lyman, 1878) (source of synonymy)
Orechinus monolini (A. Agassiz, 1879) accepted as Trigonocidaris monolini A. Agassiz, 1879 (basis of record)
Pentametrocrinus varians (Carpenter, 1882) (basis of record)
Plutonaster Sladen, 1889 (additional source)
Plutonaster intermedius (Perrier, 1881) (basis of record)
Polyechinus agulhensis (Döderlein, 1905) (basis of record)
Pourtalesia alcocki Koehler, 1914 (additional source)
Pteraster affinis Smith, 1876 (additional source)
Sclerasterias Perrier, 1891 (basis of record)
Spatangus capensis Döderlein, 1905 (basis of record)
Sperosoma biseriatum Döderlein, 1901 (basis of record)
Stegnobrisinga splendens H.L. Clark, 1926 (additional source)
Stereocidaris Pomel, 1883 (additional source)
Toraster tuberculatus (Gray, 1847) (additional source)
Urechinus naresianus A. Agassiz, 1879 (additional source)
Baie de l'Observatoire for Pteraster affinis Smith, 1876 
Cape Point for Cladaster macrobrachius H.L. Clark, 1923 
Cape Seal for Echinus gilchristi Bell, 1904 
Durban for Stegnobrisinga splendens H.L. Clark, 1926 
Java Sea for Amphiura uncinata Koehler, 1904 
Kenya for Sperosoma biseriatum Döderlein, 1901 
Kenyan Exclusive Economic Zone for Sperosoma biseriatum Döderlein, 1901 
Kepulauan Paternoster for Ophiogymna fulgens (Koehler, 1905) 
Kermadec Islands for Orechinus monolini (A. Agassiz, 1879) 
Knysna for Polyechinus agulhensis (Döderlein, 1905) 
Mauritius for Macrophiothrix longipeda (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mozambique for Amphiophiura trifolium Hertz, 1927 
Mozambique for Linckia laevigata (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Mozambique for Macrophiothrix longipeda (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mozambique for Ophiactis savignyi (Müller & Troschel, 1842) 
Mozambique for Ophiocomella sexradia (Duncan, 1887) 
Mozambique for Ophiopallas paradoxa Koehler, 1904 
Mozambique for Pentametrocrinus varians (Carpenter, 1882) 
Philippines Exclusive Economic Zone for Pentametrocrinus varians (Carpenter, 1882) 
Saint Thomas for Brisinga cricophora Sladen, 1889 
Saldanha Bay for Odontaster australis H.L. Clark, 1926 
Simon's Bay for Spatangus capensis Döderlein, 1905 
Somalia for Democrinus chuni (Döderlein, 1907) 
South Africa (country) for Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1828) 
South Africa (country) for Amphiura uncinata Koehler, 1904 
South Africa (country) for Asteronyx loveni Müller & Troschel, 1842 
South Africa (country) for Benthopecten pedicifer (Sladen, 1889)  (doubtful)
South Africa (country) for Brisinga cricophora Sladen, 1889 
South Africa (country) for Cladaster macrobrachius H.L. Clark, 1923 
South Africa (country) for Clypeaster rarispinus de Meijere, 1903 
South Africa (country) for Crossaster penicillatus Sladen, 1889 
South Africa (country) for Democrinus chuni (Döderlein, 1907) 
South Africa (country) for Dermechinus horridus (A. Agassiz, 1879) 
South Africa (country) for Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) 
South Africa (country) for Echinus gilchristi Bell, 1904 
South Africa (country) for Hymenaster gennaeus H.L. Clark, 1923 
South Africa (country) for Hymenaster latebrosus Sladen, 1882 
South Africa (country) for Odontaster australis H.L. Clark, 1926 
South Africa (country) for Ophiactis abyssicola (M. Sars, 1861) 
South Africa (country) for Ophiactis plana Lyman, 1869 
South Africa (country) for Ophiactis savignyi (Müller & Troschel, 1842) 
South Africa (country) for Ophiernus vallincola Lyman, 1878 
South Africa (country) for Ophiocten latens Koehler, 1906 
South Africa (country) for Ophiogymna fulgens (Koehler, 1905) 
South Africa (country) for Ophiomisidium pulchellum (Wyville Thomson, 1877) 
South Africa (country) for Ophiopallas paradoxa Koehler, 1904 
South Africa (country) for Ophiura flagellata (Lyman, 1878) 
South Africa (country) for Ophiura irrorata (Lyman, 1878) 
South Africa (country) for Orechinus monolini (A. Agassiz, 1879) 
South Africa (country) for Pectinaster filholi Perrier, 1885 
South Africa (country) for Pentametrocrinus varians (Carpenter, 1882)  (doubtful)
South Africa (country) for Phormosoma bursarium A. Agassiz, 1881 
South Africa (country) for Plutonaster intermedius (Perrier, 1881) 
South Africa (country) for Porcellanaster ceruleus Wyville Thomson, 1878 
South Africa (country) for Pourtalesia alcocki Koehler, 1914 
South Africa (country) for Psilaster acuminatus Sladen, 1889 
South Africa (country) for Pteraster affinis Smith, 1876 
South Africa (country) for Spatangus capensis Döderlein, 1905 
South Africa (country) for Sperosoma biseriatum Döderlein, 1901 
South Africa (country) for Stegnobrisinga splendens H.L. Clark, 1926 
South Africa (country) for Toraster tuberculatus (Gray, 1847) 
South African Exclusive Economic Zone for Ophiomusium lymani Wyville-Thomson, 1873 
Southern Ocean for Hymenaster latebrosus Sladen, 1882 
West Indian Ocean for Plutonaster intermedius (Perrier, 1881) 
Unknown type, geounit Azores, identified as Ophiocten latens Koehler, 1906
Unknown type, geounit Canary Islands, identified as Ophiomisidium pulchellum (Wyville Thomson, 1877)
Unknown type, geounit Cape Agulhas, identified as Ophiura irrorata (Lyman, 1878)
Unknown type, geounit Cape Point, identified as Hymenaster gennaeus H.L. Clark, 1923
Unknown type, geounit Crozet Islands, identified as Urechinus naresianus A. Agassiz, 1879
Unknown type, geounit Gulf of Oman, identified as Pourtalesia alcocki Koehler, 1914
Unknown type, geounit South Norway, identified as Diplopteraster multipes (M. Sars, 1866)
Syntype SMNH Type-3287, geounit Kattegat, identified as Asteronyx loveni Müller & Troschel, 1842
 Biology

Sexually dimrophic species, epizoic on cake urchins Echinodiscus bisperforatus and E. auritus [details]

 Description

Description: disc scales with scattered pointed spinelets; single thick oral papilla, no infradental papilla; ... [details]

 Description

Clark & Courtman-Stock record the species as observed from South Africa, without further details. [details]

 Description

South african Atlantic species [details]

 Distribution

General distribution: temperate, discontinuous (Pacific and Atlantic Oceans), depth range 62-2963 m. (Rowe & Gates, ... [details]

 Distribution

Distribution: South Africa, not known more precisely. [details]

 Distribution

From the Philippines in Lyman (1874). [details]

 Distribution

Distribution: also atlantic coast of S Africa (Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976). [details]

 Distribution

Also reported from Morocco and Ivory coast (Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in East Indies, Philippine and South Pacific Is. (Clark & Rowe, 1971); Australia (Rowe & Gates, ... [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in Gilbert Islands (Clark, 1954). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in Saipan (Clark, 1954). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in Maldives, Andamans, Lesser Sunda Island and southern Japan in depths from about 400-2800 m. ... [details]

 Distribution

Tropical Indo-Pacific in Kalk (1958). [details]

 Distribution

Distribution: occurs ao on the Atlantic Coast of South Africa (Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976 [554]) [details]

 Ecology

benthic, continental shelf, continental slope. General distribution: temperate, South Africa, west Pacific Ocean, ... [details]

 Ecology

Ecology: benthic, inshore, continental shelf, deposit feeder. General distribution: temperate, discontinuous (west ... [details]

 Ecology

Ecology: benthic, continental shelf, continental slope, abyssal. General distribution: temperate, circumglobal ... [details]

 Ecology

Ecology: benthic, continental slope. Depth range 318-2300 m. (Rowe & Gates, 1995). Also previously recorded in ... [details]

 Ecology

Ecology: benthic, continental slope. General distribution: temperate, discontinuous, South Africa, New Zealand, ... [details]

 Holotype

Holotype South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa.Type locality: off East London, South Africa, 375m (Rowe & ... [details]

 Holotype

Holotype whereabouts undetermined. Type locality: Red Sea, in Lyman (1865) (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Holotype

Holotype in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA) No. 2278; paratypes in ... [details]

 Holotype

Holotype South African Museum, Cape Town (South Africa) A.6445. Type locality: NW of Lion's Head, Cape Town, South ... [details]

 Remark

Type species: Tristan da Cunha, 200 m. (Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976). [details]

 Remark

Types species: Spatangus pusillus Leske, 1778 (=Echinus cordatus Pennant, 1777) by subsequent designation (Rowe & ... [details]

 Remark

Type data: status and whereabouts undetermined. Type locality: Unknown (Britain) (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Type data: syntypes whereabouts undetermined. Type locality: unknown (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

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Type specie of the genus Keraiophorus Michelin, 1862 (=Coelopleurus L. Agassiz, 1840 (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

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Syntypes undetermied. Type locality: Norway in Clark & Courtman-Stock (1976), but unknown in Rowe & Gates (1995). [details]

 Remark

Syntypes ?Zoologisches Museum, Göttingen (Germany) (3 specimens).Type locality: Amboina, Indonesia (Rowe & Gates, ... [details]

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Syntypes Natural History Museum, London (England) 1882.12.23.444. Type locality: japan (35°11'N 139°28'E) (Rowe & ... [details]

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Type species: Ophiogymna elegans Ljungman, 1866 by monotypy (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

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Lectotype Museum fürNnaturkunde an der Universität Humbolt zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany) 5429, paralectotype Museum ... [details]

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Lectotype Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands, paralectotypes Universitait van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, ... [details]

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Type species: Ophiacantha vipellis Lyman, 1883 by original designation (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

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Syntypes (probable) Natural History Museum, London (england). Type locality: off the coast of Ireland (Rowe & ... [details]

 Remark

Type specie of the genus Cryptopelta H.L. Clark, 1909 (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Syntypes (7 specimens) ?Universitait van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Type locality: east of Sailus Besar, ... [details]

 Remark

Also recorded from 'Coin Peros' by Bell (1909) - locality can't be traced. Described by Müller & Troschel ... [details]

 Remark

Type species: Cidaris cretosa Mantell, 1829 (=Cidaris sceptrifera Mantell, 1822) by subsequent designation in ... [details]

 Spelling

Tropriometra in Kalk (1958). [details]

 Status

Lyman (1882) intended this to be a synonym of Ophioderma tonagan Lütken, 1872, but assigned his own name to it as ... [details]

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Treated as synonym of Astrothorax papillata (H.L. Clark, 1923) in Clark & Courtman-Stock (1976). [details]

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Original combination for Henricia reticulata; H. reticulata is junior homonym of H. reticulata of Hayashi, 1940. [details]

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H. retecta preoccupied by Hayashi 1940 [details]

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A forma of M. gacialis [details]

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In Lyman (1874): Ophiothrix longipeda is a synonym of Ophiothrix propinqua Lyman. But Ophiothrix propinqua is a ... [details]

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