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Species that were reported at some time to be present but were not recorded subsequently are reported to be ‘Absent’.  +
Abundance and population trends of species populations have been recorded where this information was available.  +
Common in OSPAR Regions II, III, IV  +
Occupying the ocean floor from ca 4000 - 6000 m depth. Usually a more or less flat plain (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Overlays the plains of the major ocean basins with a lower boundary of ca 6000 m.  +
Other structures such as palps, tentacles or a radiolar crown ("grooved palps"). There are forms of single pair of grooved palps nearly always attached dorsally or near the junction of the prostomium and peristomium, or multiple grooved palps sometimes forming a crown. Dorso lateral ciliated folds in the roof of the buccal cavity may be present in some polychaetes.  +
An organism that constructs reefs or raised beds of accreted materials, e.g. bound sand in ''Sabellaria'' spp.  +
Crawling larval stage of some hydoids (amend)  +
The reproductively capable (mature), fully formed, usually longest lived, stage of an animals life cycle.  +
Attached or stuck to adult but not held in specialised appendage / receptacle  +
Eggs are placed or retained within the parents burrow  +
Where the species physically alters the nature of the strata/habitat.  +
Age recorded in days, months, years.  +
An organism that constructs reefs and raised beds due to aggregation of large numbers of individuals via permanent or semi-permanent attachment e.g. mussels, oysters and ''Crepidula'' beds.  +
Constructs deep beds of calcareous algal nodules, e.g. maerl beds  +
Species introduced by man into places out of their natural range of distribution.  +
36-40 psu  +
10-<18 psu  +
3-<5 psu  +
25-<30 psu  +
The alternation of generations, in the life cycle of an organism, that exhibit different modes of reproduction; typically sexual (diploid) and asexual (haploid) phases. Also termed metagenesis (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998) (e.g. ''Daphnia'', some rotifers)  +
Where the species alters the nature of chemical or water cycles.  +
Where the species alters food web dynamics.  +
Sedentary or sessile predators, that wait for prey to come to them, and may or may not use a final pounce, traps or lures (e.g. sea anemones, large hydroids, spiders)  +
calcium carbonate that lacks a crystalline structure, or whose internal is so irregular that there is no characteristic external form. The term does not preclude the existence of any degree of order (Derived from Neuendorf et al. 2005)  +
A poriferan larva, composed of a hollow ball of cells, with one hemisphere ciliated (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).  +
Coastal salt water habitats with no surface connection to the sea.  +
E.g. ''Ceratium'' spp.  +
Having flagellate gametes of different size, shape or behaviour (from Bold, 1977 and Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Breeds every year but in one or more discrete periods initiated by some trigger (for example a lunar cycle).  +
Breeds every year over an extended or drawn out period.  +
Reproduction via single cells /eggs that are derived by mitosis (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993) - amictic.  +
Swimming is effected one or more pairs of appendages (legs or paddles) e.g. the pleiopods of Isopod, Amphipod or Decapod crustaceans, or the legs of amphibious vertebrates.  +
Alien and potentially invasive species that have accidentally escaped from containment/ aquaculture facility into the wild.  +
Alien and potentially invasive species that have been intentionally introduced for aquaculture.  +
Where the species alters boat traffic or impedes ability of boats to navigate waterways.  +
a crystalline form of calcium carbonate, e.g. one of the constituents of mollusc shells.  +
Having the shape or characteristics of a tree.  +
Specialist - sea urchins  +
Traits that describe specialized limbs or appendages used to catch or process food items.  +
Haploid males develop from unfertilized eggs and diploid females from fertilized eggs (adapted from Lincoln 'et al.'', 1998).  +
Jointed, arthrous (Holmes, 1979).  +
E.g. wood, metal or concrete structures.  +
A free-swimming tadpole-like larva of ascidians, characterized by a head (bearing internal organs and adhesive papilla) and tail (with notochord and neural tube) (Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Reproduction not involving the exchange of genetic material, amictic, individuals derived form a single parent (Barnes ''et al.'', 2006); not involving the fusion of gametes (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998)  +
Attached to the sediment surface e.g. by mucilagenous sheath such as used by necklace shells, and opistobranchs  +
First free-swimming larval stage of the Holothuroidea. It is characterized by a continuous and curving flagellated band (Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
Obligate self-fertilization (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998) in which haploid eggs /gametes are produced by meiosis but diploidy is restored without fertilization.  +
Self-feeding. An organism capable of synthesizing complex organic substances from simple inorganic substrates (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Use of a length of silk to be carried by the wind (e.g. spiders)  +
Occupying the ocean floor from ca 200 - 4000 m depth (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
Extends from ca 1000-2500 m.  +
e.g. birds / cephalopods  +
An organism that lives in large aggregations or beds (e.g. brittlestars, mussels, oysters, ''Crepidula'' etc, sea squirts)  +
Any stable hard substratum, not separated into boulders or smaller sediment units. Includes soft rock-types such as chalk, peat and clay. (Hiscock ''et al.'', 1999; MarLIN)  +
Pertaining to the sea bed, river bed or lake floor (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
A zone of open water extending ca 100 m above the surface of the sea bed at all depths below the edge of the continental shelf.  +
30-36 psu  +
5-<10 psu  +
0.5-<3 psu  +
18-<25 psu  +
Breeds less frequently than every two years.  +
Breeds every second year but in one or more discrete periods initiated by some trigger (for example a lunar cycle).  +
Breeds once every two years over an extended or drawn out period.  +
Where an introduction of a bio-control agent results in an unintentional introduction of an invasive species (which is carried directly on the bio-control agent itself or along with habitat material associated with the bio-control agent).  +
Where a species (i.e. a bio-control agent) introduced to control a pest, weed or invasive species becomes a problem itself.  +
Organisms whose activities that cause constant and random local sediment biomixing over short distances resulting in transport of sediment particles, analogous to molecular or eddy diffusion (from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012). Includes epifaunal biodiffusers e.g. fiddler crabs; surficial biodiffusers e.g. ''Echinocardium''; and gallery biodiffusers e.g. ''Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor''.  +
Habitat features created by living things  +
An elevated structure on the seabed built by calcareous or other concretion-forming organisms, or by chemical precipitation (Hiscock, 1996); for example by ''Modiolus modiolus'' or ''Sabellaria alveolata''  +
First of the two free-swimming larval forms in the asteroids, characterized by a ciliary band and the presence of arm-like projections (Stachowitsch, 1992; Ruppert & Barnes, 1994).  +
Europe is home to more than 500 wild bird species. But at least 32 % of the EU's bird species are currently not in a good conservation status. The Birds Directive aims to protect all of the 500 wild bird species naturally occurring in the European Union.  +
194 species and sub-species are particularly threatened. Member States must designate Special Protection Areas (SPAs) for their survival and all migratory bird species.  +
82 bird species can be hunted. However, the hunting periods are limited and hunting is forbidden when birds are at their most vulnerable: during their return migration to nesting areas, reproduction and the raising of their chicks.  +
Overall, activities that directly threaten birds, such as their deliberate killing, capture or trade, or the destruction of their nests, are banned. With certain restrictions, Member States can allow some of these activities for 26 species listed here.  +
The directive provides for the sustainable management of hunting but Member States must outlaw all forms of non-selective and large scale killing of birds, especially the methods listed in this annex.  +
The directive promotes research to underpin the protection, management and use of all species of birds covered by the Directive, which are listed in this annex.  +
Mouth parts designed to grasp and macerate food before swallowing (e.g. most vertebrates)  +
Mouth parts designed to pierce outside of food or prey and feed on internal fluids or tissues  +
Characteristically a shell of two calcareous valves joined by a flexible ligament.  +
Two generations per year (Barnes ''et al.'', 2006).  +
Organisms that live in 'I' or 'J' shaped burrows open at only one end where water is drawn through or diffuses out of the sediment e.g. ''Arenicola marina'' (adapted from Kristensen ''et al.'', 2012).  +
Build up or accumulation of sediment.  +
Maerl; twig-like unattached (free-living) calcareous red algae, often a mixture of species and including species which form a spiky cover on loose small stones - 'hedgehog stones'.  +
Traits relating to the form, shape and structure of the species  +
Overall shape of the individual or colony (modular forms)  +
A measurement of the size of the organism. Note - the measurement used to express body size varies within taxonomic groups. For example, some disciplines measure diameter, others carapace length, total body length or wing span. Also body size can vary with gender and life stage.  +
Maximum recorded linear body length (in millimetres) excluding appendages.  +
Species that have been intercepted at borders as a result of detection procedures.  +
The second the two free-swimming larval forms in the asteroids, characterized by the appearance of three adhesive arms at the anterior end (Ruppert & Barnes, 1994; Stachowitsch, 1992).  +
0.5-<30 psu  +
Both gametes are expelled (spawned) from the confines of the adult body or tissues, into the external fluid medium (water/air)  +
Eggs retained by adult, usually in specialised cavity/appendage where the eggs develop to larval or juvenile stage  +
Feeding on parts of plants (e.g. shoots, leaves, twigs) or parts of other organisms (e.g. siphon nipping by fish). (Lincoln ''et al.'', 1998).  +
The buccal cavity lacks obvious differentiation of the wall and it is not eversible. Some species if buccal cavity present at all, is only a transient larval structure and becomes completely occluded.  +
A form of asexual multiplication in which a new individual begins life as an outgrowth from the body of the parent. It may then separate to lead an independent existence or remain connected or otherwise associated to form a colonial organism (Barnes ''et al.'', 1993).  +
Balloon or sac-like (Prescott, 1969).  +
An organism that constructs permanent or semi-permanent burrows through physical excavation or chemical action.  +
Occupies or shares space in burrow constructed by other organisms.  +
An organism that moves through the substratum by burrowing or tunneling (e.g. earthworms, polychaetes).  +
Use of a length of byssus thread (e.g. micro-molluscs, juvenile molluscs) or mucus (e.g ''Nemertesia'' planulae) to be carried by water flow  +