Böggemann, M. (2005). Revision of the Goniadidae. Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg. (Neue Folgen) 39: 1-354 [Goecke & Evers].
Revision of the Goniadidae
Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg
(Neue Folgen) 39: 1-354 [Goecke & Evers]
World Polychaeta Database (WPolyDb)
The Goniadidae KINBERG, 1865 are important widely distributed endopsammal benthic predators and occur from intertidal to abyssal depths. Larger species are popular subjects for ecological, physiological and biochemical studies and they are also used as fish bait for sport and commercial fisheries. Morphological data permitted the conclusion that Goniadidae and Glyceridae GRUBE, 1850 probably form a monophyletic unit called Glyceriformia FAUCHALD, 1977. Fossil jaws of both groups exist from the Triassic and a whole preserved specimen of putative Goniadidae is described from the Carboniferous. Within Glyceridae there are currently 42 recognized nominal species in three genera and the Goniadidae are currently divided into eight genera and 63 nominal species.
This paper comprises the first revision of all worldwide described Goniadidae. Under the application of light and scanning electron microscopy most of the 115 described species and subspecies of Goniadidae are examined by their type material. Seven of these species (+ Alienites cuneatus KOZUR, 1967; + Alienites longidentatus KOZUR, 1967; + Goniada bakeri CHARLETTA & BOYER, 1974; + Goniada constricta KOZUR, 1971; + Goniada diversidentata SZANIAWSKI, 1974; + Goniada szaniawskii KOZUR in SZANIAWSKI, 1974 (= + Goniada multidentata KOZUR, 1971); + Pieckonia helenae THOMPSON, 1979) represent fossil taxa and are not further investigated. Glycera viridescens STIMPSON, 1954 seems to be a synonym of Goniada maculata ÖRSTED, 1843 and Lacydonia incognita RULLIER, 1965 might be a posterior fragment of Goniada congoensis GRUBE, 1877.
Altogether, only 63 species (5 Bathyglycinde, 11 Glycinde, 31 Goniada, 6 Goniadella, 5 Goniadides, 3 Goniadopsis, 1 Ophiogoniada n. gen., 1 Progoniada) of the described 110 recent taxa are considered to be valid species, the others being synonyms, nomina dubia or nomina nuda. Nine of the valid taxa are herein described as new: Goniada bifida n. sp., Goniada corona n. sp., Goniada indooceanica n. sp., Goniada multichevronata n. sp., Goniada pseudofoliacea n. sp., Goniada rottnestensis n. sp., Goniadella katherineae n. sp., Goniadella tasmanensis n. sp., Goniadides madagascariensis n. sp.; the genus Ophioglycera is furthermore renamed as Ophiogoniada n. gen.
About 5000 specimens from all over the world were studied and measured, and the 63 valid species together with one Goniadidae incertae sedis are described and illustrated in detail. Most of the drawings are based on light microscopy, but especially the proboscidial papillae were also studied using scanning electron microscopy to clarify their detailed structures and to avoid misinterpretations. A list of all taxa together with their synonyms and identification keys for all Goniadidae known to this date are also presented. Additionally all available biological and ecological data from the literature are listed.