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Cárdenas, P.; Rapp, H.T.: Klitgaard, A.B.; Best, M.; Thollesson, M.; Tendal, O.S. (2013). Taxonomy, biogeography and DNA barcodes of Geodia species (Porifera, Demospongiae, Tetractinellida) in the Atlantic boreo-arctic region. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 169, 251-311.
169594
10.1111/zoj.12056 [view]
Cárdenas, P.; Rapp, H.T.: Klitgaard, A.B.; Best, M.; Thollesson, M.; Tendal, O.S.
2013
Taxonomy, biogeography and DNA barcodes of <i>Geodia</i> species (Porifera, Demospongiae, Tetractinellida) in the Atlantic boreo-arctic region.
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society
169, 251-311
Publication
Available for editors  PDF available [request]
Geodia species north of 60°N in the Atlantic appeared in the literature for the first time when Bowerbank described Geodia barretti and G. macandrewii in 1858 from western Norway. Since then, a number of species have been based on material from various parts of the region: G. simplex, Isops phlegraei, I. pallida, I. sphaeroides, Synops pyriformis, G. parva, G. normani, G. atlantica, Sidonops mesotriaena (now called G. hentscheli), and G. simplicissima. In addition to these 12 nominal species, four species described from elsewhere are claimed to have been identified in material from the northeast Atlantic, namely G. nodastrella and G. cydonium (and its synonyms Cydonium muelleri and Geodia gigas). In this paper, we revise the boreo-arctic Geodia species using morphological, molecular, and biogeographical data. We notably compare northwest and northeast Atlantic specimens. Biological data (reproduction, biochemistry, microbiology, epibionts) for each species are also reviewed. Our results show that there are six valid species of boreo-arctic Atlantic Geodia while other names are synonyms or mis-identifications. Geodia barretti, G. atlantica, G. macandrewii, and G. hentscheli are well established and widely distributed. The same goes for Geodia phlegraei, but this species shows a striking geographical and bathymetric variation, which led us to recognize two species, G. phlegraei and G. parva (here resurrected). Some Geodia are arctic species(G. hentscheli, G. parva), while others are typically boreal (G. atlantica, G. barretti, G. phlegraei, G. macandrewii). No morphological differences were found between specimens from the northeast and northwest Atlantic, except for G. parva. The Folmer cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) fragment is unique for every species and invariable over their whole distribution range, except for G. barretti which had two haplotypes. 18S is unique for four species but cannot discriminate G. phlegraei and G. parva. Two keys to the boreo-arctic Geodia are included, one based on external morphology, the other based on spicule morphology.
Arctic-Boreal marine
Arctic, subarctic, boreal
Systematics, Taxonomy
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Date
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2013-08-27 12:40:03Z
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2015-09-30 14:50:16Z
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2017-12-16 08:17:49Z
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Baffin Bay - Davis Strait for Geodia barretti Bowerbank, 1858 
Celtic Seas for Geodia barretti Bowerbank, 1858 
Celtic Seas for Geodia barretti Bowerbank, 1858 
East Greenland Shelf for Geodia atlantica (Stephens, 1915) 
East Greenland Shelf for Geodia barretti Bowerbank, 1858 
East Greenland Shelf for Geodia macandrewii Bowerbank, 1858 
Faroe Plateau for Geodia atlantica (Stephens, 1915) 
Faroe Plateau for Geodia barretti Bowerbank, 1858 
Faroe Plateau for Geodia macandrewii Bowerbank, 1858 
Kara Sea for Geodia hentscheli Cárdenas, Rapp, Schander & Tendal, 2010 
North and East Barents Sea for Geodia barretti Bowerbank, 1858 
North and East Barents Sea for Geodia macandrewii Bowerbank, 1858 
Northern Grand Banks - Southern Labrador for Geodia atlantica (Stephens, 1915) 
Northern Grand Banks - Southern Labrador for Geodia barretti Bowerbank, 1858 
Northern Grand Banks - Southern Labrador for Geodia macandrewii Bowerbank, 1858 
Northern Norway and Finnmark for Geodia atlantica (Stephens, 1915) 
Norwegian Sea for Geodia hentscheli Cárdenas, Rapp, Schander & Tendal, 2010 
South and West Iceland for Geodia atlantica (Stephens, 1915) 
South and West Iceland for Geodia hentscheli Cárdenas, Rapp, Schander & Tendal, 2010 
South and West Iceland for Geodia macandrewii Bowerbank, 1858 
Southern Grand Banks - South Newfoundland for Geodia atlantica (Stephens, 1915) 
Southern Grand Banks - South Newfoundland for Geodia barretti Bowerbank, 1858 
Southern Grand Banks - South Newfoundland for Geodia macandrewii Bowerbank, 1858 
Southern Norway for Geodia atlantica (Stephens, 1915) 
Southern Norway for Geodia barretti Bowerbank, 1858 
West Greenland Shelf for Geodia atlantica (Stephens, 1915) 
West Greenland Shelf for Geodia barretti Bowerbank, 1858 
West Greenland Shelf for Geodia hentscheli Cárdenas, Rapp, Schander & Tendal, 2010 
West Greenland Shelf for Geodia macandrewii Bowerbank, 1858 
Western Mediterranean for Geodia barretti Bowerbank, 1858 
Holotype BMNH 1910.1.1.840, geounit Southern Norway, identified as Geodia phlegraei (Sollas, 1880)
Holotype ZMB 7549, geounit North and East Barents Sea, identified as Sidonops mesotriaena Hentschel, 1929
Holotype ZMB 7549, geounit North and East Barents Sea, identified as Geodia hentscheli Cárdenas, Rapp, Schander & Tendal, 2010
Paratype ZMB 7550,7551, geounit North and East Barents Sea, identified as Sidonops mesotriaena Hentschel, 1929
Holotype BMNH 2012.12.12.1, geounit Southern Norway, identified as Pachymatisma normani Sollas, 1888
Holotype S.R.151-27/364-1914, geounit Celtic Seas, identified as Sidonops atlantica Stephens, 1915
Holotype ZMB Por 7549, identified as Geodia mesotriaena (Hentschel, 1929)
 Habitat

Eurybathic species found on infralittoral, circalittoral and bathyal bottoms. Bathymeric range 31-2000 m. Water ... [details]

 Holotype

BMNH seem to be lost. Only two slides BMNH 1877.5.21.1396 and BMNH 1877.5.21.1398 [details]

 Holotype

The holotype of Geodia simplex has the spicule repertoire of G. cydonium from the Mediterranean Sea. However, ... [details]

 Holotype

Neotype ZMBN 77858 (Cárdenas et al., 2007) is no longer valid since holotype was re-discovered (Cárdenas & Rapp, ... [details]

 Type locality

Western Norway, South side of Vikna Island (formerly called Vigten or Vikten Island), North Trøndelag, 183 m [details]

 Type locality

Vikna Island (formerly called Vigten or Vikten Island), North Trøndelag, Norway, 183 m [details]

 Type material

Type material is presumably lost. [details]



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