Reiswig, H.M.; Champagne, P. (1995). The NE Atlantic glass sponges Pheronema carpenteri (Thomson) and P. grayi Kent (Porifera: Hexactinellida) are synonyms. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 115: 373-384.
Reiswig, H.M.; Champagne, P.
The NE Atlantic glass sponges <i>Pheronema carpenteri</i> (Thomson) and <i>P. grayi</i> Kent (Porifera: Hexactinellida) are synonyms
Since 1870, it has been generally accepted that two very similar species of the amphidiscophoran genus Pheronema Leidy inhabit the NE Atlantic. Pheronema carpenteri (Thomson, 1869) was first described as the indicative organism of the 'Holtenia ground' NW of Scotland at 970 m. Pheronema grayi (Kent, 1870) was described from the coast of Portugal from similar depth. The species were differentiated mainly by body form and distribution of conspicuous external spiculation. Occurrences of the two species reported since then document their broadly overlapping horizontal and vertical distributions at bathyal depths throughout the NE Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Conspicuously, not one of 16 collections containing either species included both species. Review of literature descriptions and inspection of key specimens show that no characters provide unambiguous differentiation of the two forms. Based upon this evidence, and discovery of correspondence in which Kent privately negated the validity of his species, it is concluded that only one species population of Pheronema occurs in this region. Pheronema grayi is thus a junior synonym of P. carpenteri.