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Porifera taxon details

Ircinia variabilis (Schmidt, 1862)

132362  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:132362)

accepted
Species
Hircinia flavescens Schmidt, 1862 (genus transfer and junior synonym)
Hircinia hebes Schmidt, 1862 (genus transfer and junior synonym)
Hircinia hirsuta Schmidt, 1862 (genus transfer and junior synonym)
Hircinia lingua Schmidt, 1868 (genus transfer & junior synonym)
Hircinia mamillaris Schmidt, 1868 (genus transfer and junior synonym)
Hircinia panicea Schmidt, 1862 (genus transfer and junior synonym)
Hircinia variabilis Schmidt, 1862 (genus name correction)
Spongia licheniformis var. gamma Lamarck, 1814 (genus transfer & junior synonym)
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
(of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt, 1862) Schmidt, O. (1862). Die Spongien des adriatischen Meeres. (Wilhelm Engelmann: Leipzig): i-viii, 1-88, pls 1-7.
page(s): 34; pl III 17 [details]  OpenAccess publication 
Type locality contained in Adriatic Sea  
type locality contained in Adriatic Sea [from synonym] [view taxon] [details]
Taxonomy The assignment of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt as type species of the genus Ircinia is controversial. It is proposed by...  
Taxonomy The assignment of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt as type species of the genus Ircinia is controversial. It is proposed by Pronzato et al. (2004) to name Ircinia spongiastrum Nardo, 1833 as type species. This is a nomen nudum and as such not available as a name for a valid (type) species. Subsequently these authors assign I. spongiastrum to the synonymy of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt, 1862 by which act this would become the type species of Ircinia. Previously, authors have attempted to assign Spongia fasciculata Pallas, 1766, as type of Ircinia, but that is not possible because this was not among the species mentioned by Nardo, 1833 under Ircinia. For Hircinia variabilis Schmidt to become type species 'officially', a verdict from the Committee of the ICZN appears necessary. [details]
Van Soest, R.W.M; Boury-Esnault, N.; Hooper, J.N.A.; Rützler, K.; de Voogd, N.J.; Alvarez, B.; Hajdu, E.; Pisera, A.B.; Manconi, R.; Schönberg, C.; Klautau, M.; Picton, B.; Kelly, M.; Vacelet, J.; Dohrmann, M.; Díaz, M.-C.; Cárdenas, P.; Carballo, J. L.; Ríos, P.; Downey, R. (2018). World Porifera database. Ircinia variabilis (Schmidt, 1862). Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/porifera/porifera.php?p=taxdetails&id=132362 on 2019-08-23
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2005-09-09 16:45:37Z
changed
2006-09-04 18:27:42Z
changed
2006-11-07 19:57:12Z
changed
2006-11-08 10:20:37Z
changed
2010-05-06 19:18:19Z
checked

original description  (of Ircinia flavescens (Schmidt, 1862)) Schmidt, O. (1862). Die Spongien des adriatischen Meeres. (Wilhelm Engelmann: Leipzig): i-viii, 1-88, pls 1-7. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Ircinia hebes (Schmidt, 1862)) Schmidt, O. (1862). Die Spongien des adriatischen Meeres. (Wilhelm Engelmann: Leipzig): i-viii, 1-88, pls 1-7. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Hircinia variabilis var. fistulata Szymanski, 1904) Szymanski, J.M. (1904). Hornschwämme von Aegina und Brioni bei Pola. <em>Inaugural Dissertation. (Breslau).</em>  [details]   

original description  (of Hircinia variabilis var. fistulata Szymanski, 1904) Szymanski, M. (1904). Zur Anatomie und Systematik der Hornschwämme des Mittelmeeres. <em>Zoologischen Anzeiger.</em> 27: 445-449. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Hircinia flavescens Schmidt, 1862) Schmidt, O. (1862). Die Spongien des adriatischen Meeres. (Wilhelm Engelmann: Leipzig): i-viii, 1-88, pls 1-7.
page(s): 33; pl III fig 12-14 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Hircinia hebes Schmidt, 1862) Schmidt, O. (1862). Die Spongien des adriatischen Meeres. (Wilhelm Engelmann: Leipzig): i-viii, 1-88, pls 1-7.
page(s): 33-34; pl III fig 16 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Hircinia hirsuta Schmidt, 1862) Schmidt, O. (1862). Die Spongien des adriatischen Meeres. (Wilhelm Engelmann: Leipzig): i-viii, 1-88, pls 1-7.
page(s): 33; pl III fig 15 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Hircinia lingua Schmidt, 1868) Schmidt, O. (1868). Die Spongien der Küste von Algier. Mit Nachträgen zu den Spongien des Adriatischen Meeres (Drittes Supplement). (Wilhelm Engelmann: Leipzig): i-iv, 1-44, pls I-V.
page(s): 6; pl II fig 3 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Ircinia tenax Nardo, 1833) Nardo, G.D. (1833). Auszug aus einem neuen System der Spongiarien,wonach bereits die Aufstellung in der Universitäts-Sammlung zu Padua gemacht ist. Pp. 519-523. <em>In: Isis, oder Encyclopädische Zeitung Coll. (Oken: Jena).</em>  [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Ircinia hospitum Nardo, 1833) Nardo, G.D. (1833). Auszug aus einem neuen System der Spongiarien,wonach bereits die Aufstellung in der Universitäts-Sammlung zu Padua gemacht ist. Pp. 519-523. <em>In: Isis, oder Encyclopädische Zeitung Coll. (Oken: Jena).</em>  [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Ircinia rigida Nardo, 1833) Nardo, G.D. (1833). Auszug aus einem neuen System der Spongiarien,wonach bereits die Aufstellung in der Universitäts-Sammlung zu Padua gemacht ist. Pp. 519-523. <em>In: Isis, oder Encyclopädische Zeitung Coll. (Oken: Jena).</em>  [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Hircinia panicea Schmidt, 1862) Schmidt, O. (1862). Die Spongien des adriatischen Meeres. (Wilhelm Engelmann: Leipzig): i-viii, 1-88, pls 1-7.
page(s): 32; pl III fig 11 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Ircinia spongiastrum Nardo, 1833) Nardo, G.D. (1833). Auszug aus einem neuen System der Spongiarien,wonach bereits die Aufstellung in der Universitäts-Sammlung zu Padua gemacht ist. Pp. 519-523. <em>In: Isis, oder Encyclopädische Zeitung Coll. (Oken: Jena).</em>  [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Spongia cavernosa sensu Nardo, 1833) Nardo, G.D. (1833). Auszug aus einem neuen System der Spongiarien,wonach bereits die Aufstellung in der Universitäts-Sammlung zu Padua gemacht ist. Pp. 519-523. <em>In: Isis, oder Encyclopädische Zeitung Coll. (Oken: Jena).</em>  [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt, 1862) Schmidt, O. (1862). Die Spongien des adriatischen Meeres. (Wilhelm Engelmann: Leipzig): i-viii, 1-88, pls 1-7.
page(s): 34; pl III 17 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Spongia licheniformis var. gamma Lamarck, 1814) Lamarck, J.B.P. De Monet, Comte De. (1814 [1813]). Sur les polypiers empâtés. <em>Annales du Museum national d'Histoire naturelle.</em> 20: 294-312; 370-386; 432-458. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Hircinia variabilis var. typica Nardo, 1847) Nardo, G.D. (1847). Prospetto della fauna marina volgare del Veneto Estuario con cenni sulle principali specie commestibili dell'Adriatico,sulle venete pesche, sulle valli, ecc. Pp. 113-156 (1-45 in reprint). <em>In: Venezia e le sue lagune. (G. Antonelli: Venezia).</em>  [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Hircinia typica Nardo, 1847) Nardo, G.D. (1847). Prospetto della fauna marina volgare del Veneto Estuario con cenni sulle principali specie commestibili dell'Adriatico,sulle venete pesche, sulle valli, ecc. Pp. 113-156 (1-45 in reprint). <em>In: Venezia e le sue lagune. (G. Antonelli: Venezia).</em>  [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Hircinia mamillaris Schmidt, 1868) Schmidt, O. (1868). Die Spongien der Küste von Algier. Mit Nachträgen zu den Spongien des Adriatischen Meeres (Drittes Supplement). (Wilhelm Engelmann: Leipzig): i-iv, 1-44, pls I-V.
page(s): 6 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

basis of record Pronzato, R.; Malva, R.; Manconi, R. (2004). The taxonomic status of <i>Ircinia fasciculata</i>, <i>Ircinia felix</i>, and <i>Ircinia variabilis</i> (Dictyoceratida, Irciinidae). <i>In</i>: Pansini M, Pronzato R, Bavestrello G, Manconi R, Sarà M (eds) Sponge Science in the New Millenium. Papers contributed to the VI International Sponge Conference Rapallo (Italy) 29 September – 5 October 2002. <em>Bollettino dei Musei e degli Istituti Biologici della Univertità di Genova.</em> 68: 553-563. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Rützler, K.; van Soest, R. W. M.; Piantoni, C. (2009). Sponges (Porifera) of the Gulf of Mexico. <i>in</i>: Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A & M Press, College Station, Texas. 285–313. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Aloui-Bejaoui, N.; Afli, A. (2012). Functional diversity of the macro-invertebrate community in the port area of Kerkennah Islands (Tunisia). <em>Mediteranean Marine Science.</em> 13 (1): 93-102.
page(s): 102 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Labate, M. (1964). Poriferi di grotta superficiale del litorale adriatico pugliese. <em>Annali del Pontificio Istituto Scienze e Lettere S. Chiara, Napoli.</em> 14, 319-342.
page(s): 338 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Voultsiadou-Koukoura, E.; Koukouras, A. (1993). Contribution to the knowledge of Keratose sponges (Dictyoceratida, Dendroceratida, Verongida: Demospongiae, Porifera) of the Aegean Sea. <em>Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin.</em> 69, 57-72.
page(s): 60-61 [details]   

additional source Kefalas, E.; Castritsi-Catharios, I; Miliou, H. (2003). The impacts of scallop dredging on sponge assemblages in the Gulf of kalloni (Aegean Sea, northeastern Mediterranean). <em>ICES Journal of Marine Science.</em> 60, 402-10.
page(s): 406 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Evcen, A.; Çinar, M.E. (2012). Sponge (Porifera) species from the Mediterranean coast of Turkey (Levantine Sea, eastern Mediterranean), with a checklist of sponges from the coasts of Turkey. <em>Turkish Journal of Zoology,.</em> 36, 460-464.
page(s): 463 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Pansini, M.; Morri, C.; Bianchi, C.N. (2000). The sponge community of a subtidal area with hydrothermal vents: Milos island, Aegean Sea. <em>Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science.</em> 51, 627-635.
page(s): 630 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Corriero, G.; Abbiati, M.; Santangelo, G. (1997). Sponges inhabiting a Mediteranean red coral population. <em>Marine Ecology.</em> 18 (2), 147-155.
page(s): 149 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Corriero, G.; Scalera-Liaci, L.; Gristina, M.; Riggio, S.; Mercurio, M. (1997). Composizione tassonomica e distribuzione della fauna e Poriferi e Briozoi in una grotta semisommersa della riserva naturale marina "Isola di Ustica". <em>Biologia Marina Mediterranea.</em> 4 (1), 34-43.
page(s): 37 [details]   

additional source Corriero, G.; Pansini, M.; Sarà, M. (1984). Sui Poriferi della insenatura della Strea a Porto Cesareo (Lecce). <em>Thalassia Salentina.</em> 14, 1-10.
page(s): 8 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Gerovasileiou, V.; Voultsiadou, E. (2016). Sponge diversity gradients in marine caves of the eastern Mediterranean. <em>Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.</em> 96(2), 407–416., available online at https://doi.org/10.1017/s0025315415000697
page(s): 4 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Evcen, A.; Çinar, M. E.; Zengin, M.; Süer, S.; Rüzgar, M. (2016). New records of five sponge species (Porifera) for the Black Sea. <em>Zootaxa.</em> 4103(3): 267., available online at https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4103.3.5
page(s): 272 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Idan T., Shefer S., Feldstein T., Yahel R., Huchon D. and Ilan M. (2018). Shedding light on an East-Mediterranean mesophotic sponge ground community and the regional sponge fauna. <em>Mediterranean marine science.</em> 19(1), 84-106., available online at https://ejournals.epublishing.ekt.gr/index.php/hcmr-med-mar-sc/article/view/13853
page(s): 9 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Costa, G.; Giussani, V.; Kletou, D.; Kleitou, P.; Pansini, M.; Setti, A.; Pronzato, R.; Bertolini, M. (2018). A first preliminary study of the shallow water sponge fauna from Cyprus Island (Eastern Mediterranean). <em>Zootaxa.</em> 4450(5): 594., available online at https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4450.5.7
page(s): 595 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Costa, G.; Betti, F.; Nepote, E.; Cattaneo-Vietti, R.; Pansini, M.; Bavestrello, G.; Bertolino, M. (2018). Sponge community variations within two semi-submerged caves of the Ligurian Sea (Mediterranean Sea) over a half-century time span. <em>The European Zoological Journal.</em> 85 (1): 382-392., available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/24750263.2018.1525439
page(s): 386 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Longo, C.; Cardone, F.; Pierri, C.; Mercurio, M.; Mucciolo, S.; Marzano, C.N.; Corriero, G. (2018). Sponges associated with coralligenous formations along the Apulian coasts. <em>Marine Biodiversity.</em> 48(4): 2151-2163., available online at https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-017-0744-x
page(s): 2188 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Van Soest, R.W.M. (2001). Porifera, <b><i>in</i></b>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification</i>. <em>Collection Patrimoines Naturels.</em> 50: 85-103. (look up in IMIS[details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Pansini, M. (1987). Littoral demosponges from the banks of the Strait of Sicily and the Alboran Sea. <i>In</i>: Vacelet J, Boury-Esnault N (eds) Taxonomy of Porifera from the N.E. Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. <em>NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series G, Ecological Sciences Springer, Heidelberg.</em> 13, 149-185. (look up in IMIS)
page(s): 182 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Pulitzer-Finali, G.; Pronzato, R. (1981 [1980]). The Keratosa in a collection of Mediterranean sponges mainly from the Italian coasts. <em>Annali del Museo civico di storia naturale Giacomo Doria.</em> 83: 127-158.
page(s): 143-144 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Corriero, G. (1989). The sponge fauna from the Stagnone di Marsala (Sicily): taxonomic and ecological observations. <em>Bolletino Museo Istituto Biologia Università Genova.</em> 53: 101-113.
page(s): 103 [details]   

basis of record  (of Hircinia lingua Schmidt, 1868) Topsent, E. (1938). Contribution nouvelle à la connaissance des Eponges des côtes d'Algérie. Les espèces nouvelles d'O. Schmidt, 1868. <em>Bulletin de l'Institut océanographique, Monaco.</em> 758: 1-32. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

basis of record  (of Hircinia typica Nardo, 1847) Schmidt, O. (1862). Die Spongien des adriatischen Meeres. (Wilhelm Engelmann: Leipzig): i-viii, 1-88, pls 1-7.
page(s): 32 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

basis of record  (of Euricinia variabilis (Schmidt, 1862)) Hooper, J.N.A.; Wiedenmayer, F. (1994). Porifera. <i>In</i>: Wells, A. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Volume 12. Melbourne, CSIRO. , available online at https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/PORIFERA/checklist [details]   

basis of record  (of Hircinia variabilis var. mammillaris Schmidt, 1868) Topsent, E. (1938). Contribution nouvelle à la connaissance des Eponges des côtes d'Algérie. Les espèces nouvelles d'O. Schmidt, 1868. <em>Bulletin de l'Institut océanographique, Monaco.</em> 758: 1-32. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

basis of record  (of Ircinia spongiastrum Nardo, 1833) Pronzato, R.; Malva, R.; Manconi, R. (2004). The taxonomic status of <i>Ircinia fasciculata</i>, <i>Ircinia felix</i>, and <i>Ircinia variabilis</i> (Dictyoceratida, Irciinidae). <i>In</i>: Pansini M, Pronzato R, Bavestrello G, Manconi R, Sarà M (eds) Sponge Science in the New Millenium. Papers contributed to the VI International Sponge Conference Rapallo (Italy) 29 September – 5 October 2002. <em>Bollettino dei Musei e degli Istituti Biologici della Univertità di Genova.</em> 68: 553-563. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

basis of record  (of Spongia cavernosa sensu Nardo, 1833) Hooper, J.N.A.; Van Soest, R.W.M. (Eds.). (2002). Systema Porifera: a guide to the classification of Sponges. Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers: New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow. 2 Volumes. 1706 pp. ISBN 0-306-47260-0. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record  (of Ircinia fasciculata var. variabilis (Schmidt, 1862)) Sarà, M. (1960). Poriferi del litorale dell'isola d'lschia e loro ripartizioneper ambienti. <em>Pubblicazioni della Stazione zoologica di Napoli.</em> 31(3):421-472, pls XII-XIII.
page(s): 469-470 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

basis of record  (of Hircinia (Euricinia) variabilis var. galea Lendenfeld, 1889) Lendenfeld, R. von. (1889). A Monograph of the Horny Sponges. (Trübner and Co.: London). iii-iv, 1-936, pls 1-50., available online at https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=chi.20735531;view=1up;seq=1
page(s): 560 [details]   

basis of record  (of Hircinia (Euricinia) variabilis var. typica Nardo, 1847) Lendenfeld, R. von. (1889). A Monograph of the Horny Sponges. (Trübner and Co.: London). iii-iv, 1-936, pls 1-50., available online at https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=chi.20735531;view=1up;seq=1
page(s): 561 [details]   

basis of record  (of Hircinia (Euricinia) variabilis var. mammillaris Schmidt, 1868) Lendenfeld, R. von. (1889). A Monograph of the Horny Sponges. (Trübner and Co.: London). iii-iv, 1-936, pls 1-50., available online at https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=chi.20735531;view=1up;seq=1
page(s): 561-562 [details]   

basis of record  (of Hircinia (Euricinia) variabilis var. lingua Schmidt, 1868) Lendenfeld, R. von. (1889). A Monograph of the Horny Sponges. (Trübner and Co.: London). iii-iv, 1-936, pls 1-50., available online at https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=chi.20735531;view=1up;seq=1
page(s): 563 [details]   

basis of record  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Vacelet, J. (1959). Répartition générale des éponges et systématique des éponges cornées de la région de Marseille et de quelques stations méditerranéennes. <em>Recueil des Travaux de la Station marine d'Endoume.</em> 16 (26): 39-101, pls 1-3. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Ben Mustapha, K; Zarrouk, S.; Souissi, A.; El Abed, A. (2003). Diversité des Démosponges Tunisiennes. <em>Bulletin Institut national des Sciences et Technologies de la mer de Salammbô.</em> 30, 55-78.
page(s): 75 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Carballo, J.L.; Garcia-Gómez, J.C. (1994). Esponjas del Estrecho de Gibraltar y áreas próximas, con nuevas aportaciones para la fauna Iberica [Porifera from the Straits of Gibraltar and nearby areas, new species of the Iberian fauna]. <em>Cahiers de Biologie Marine.</em> 35(2): 193-211. (look up in IMIS)
page(s): 196 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Lombas, I. (1982). Distribución, de esponjas esciafilas en la zona intermareal de Aramar (Luanco, Asturias). <em>Boletim de Ciencias Naturales IDEA.</em> 29: 37-50.
page(s): 47 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Sarà, M. (1958). Contributo all consoscenza dei Poriferi del Mar Ligure. <em>Annali di Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Genova.</em> 70(1): 207-244.
page(s): 240 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Boury-Esnault, N.; Harmelin, J.-G.; Ledoyer, M.; Saldanha, L.; Zibrowius, H. (2001 [2005]). Peuplement benthique des grottes sous-marines de Sagres (Portugal, Atlantique nord-oriental). <em>Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal.</em> Sup. 6: 15-38.
page(s): 20-21 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Cruz, T. (2002). Esponjas marinas de Canarias. <em>Consejería de Política Territorial y Medio Ambiente del Gobierno de Canarias.</em> S/C Tenerife. 260 pp. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Lopes, M.T.; Boury-Esnault, N. (1981). Contribution à la connaissance des éponges cornées de la côte de l'Arrábida et de l'Algarve. <em>Arquivos do Museu Bocage.</em> 1(6): 95-110.
page(s): 101 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Liu J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). Checklist of marine biota of China seas. <em>China Science Press.</em> 1267 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Harmelin, J.-G.; Boury-Esnault, N.; Fichez, R.; Vacelet, J.; Zibrowius, H. (2003). Peuplement de la grotte sous-marine de l'ile de Bagaud (parc national de Port-Cros, France, Méditerranée). <em>Rapport scientifique du Parc national de Port-Cros.</em> 19, 117-134.
page(s): 128 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Benito, J. (1981). Algunas esponjas del litoral levantino español. <em>Boletín del Instituto Español de Oceanografia.</em> 6, 89-102.
page(s): 98 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Bibiloni, M-A; Gili,J-M. (1982). Primera aportación al conocimiento de las cuevas de la Isla de Mallorca. <em>Oecologia aquatica.</em> 6: 227-234.
page(s): 232 [details]   

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Labate, M. (1964). Poriferi di grotta superficiale del litorale adriatico pugliese. <em>Annali del Pontificio Istituto Scienze e Lettere S. Chiara, Napoli.</em> 14, 319-342.
page(s): 338 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Vacelet, J. (1976). Inventaire des Spongiaires du Parc national de Port-Cros (Var). <em>Travaux scientifiques du Parc national de Port-Cros.</em> 2, 167-186.
page(s): 183 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Corriero, G.; Scalera-Liaci, L.; Ruggiero, D.; Pansini, M. (2000). The sponge community of a semi-submerged Mediterranean cave. <em>Marine Ecology.</em> 21 (1), 85-96.
page(s): 89 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Lopes, M.T. (1995). Littoral sponges from Selvagem Islands. <em>Boletim do Museu municipal do Funchal.</em> sup 4, 387-394.
page(s): 389 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Solórzano, M.R. (1990). Poríferos del litoral gallego: estudio faunístico, distribución e inventario. <em>Phd Thesis Unversidad de Santiago de Compostela.</em> 1036 pp.
page(s): 1056-1059; Lám. 139 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Naveiro Millán, A. (2002). Poríferos de la costa da Arrábida (Portugal). Clase Demospongiae. <em>Tesina Unversidad de Santiago de Compostela.</em> 165 pp.
page(s): 137-138 Figura 63 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Hircinia variabilis var. typica Nardo, 1847) Ferrer Hernández, F. (1914). Esponjas del Cantábrico. <em>Trabajos del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (Zoológica).</em> 14: 1-36.
page(s): 30 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Ircinia typica (Nardo, 1847)) Pulitzer-Finali, G.; Pronzato, R. (1976). Report on a Collection of Sponges from the Bay of Naples. II. Keratosa. <em>Pubblicazioni della Stazione zoologica di Napoli.</em> 40(1): 83-104.
page(s): 93-94 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Boury-Esnault, N. (1971). Spongiaires de la zone rocheuse de Banyuls-sur-Mer. II. Systématique. <em>Vie et Milieu.</em> 22(2): 287-349.
page(s): 342 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Boury-Esnault, N.; Lopes, M.T. (1985). Les Démosponges littorales de l'Archipel des Açores. <em>Annales de l'Institut océanographique.</em> 61(2):149-225.
page(s): 205 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Melone, N. (1965). I Poriferi associati a <i>Corallium rubrum</i> (L.) della Sardegna. <em>Annali del Museo civico di storia naturale di Genova.</em> 75:344-358.
page(s): 356 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Pouliquen, L. (1972). Les spongiaires des grottes sous-marines de la région de Marseille: Ecologie et systématique. <em>Téthys.</em> 3(4): 717-758.
page(s): 728 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Rützler, K. (1965). Systematik und Ökologie der Poriferen aus Litoral-Schattengebieten der Nordadria. <em>Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere.</em> 55(1): 1-82.
page(s): 48-49; fig 21 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Sarà, M. (1958). Studio sui Poriferi di una grotta di marea del Golfo di Napoli. <em>Archivo Zoologico Italiano.</em> 43: 203-281, pls I-II.
page(s): 274 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Sarà, M. (1961). La fauna di Poriferi delle grotte delle isole Tremiti. Studio ecologico e sistematico. <em>Archivio zoologico italiano.</em> 46: 1-59,pls I-II.
page(s): 54; pl I-4, pl II 5-7 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Ircinia flavescens (Schmidt, 1862)) Van Soest, R.W.M. (2001). Porifera, <b><i>in</i></b>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification</i>. <em>Collection Patrimoines Naturels.</em> 50: 85-103. (look up in IMIS[details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt, 1862) Schmidt, O. (1868). Die Spongien der Küste von Algier. Mit Nachträgen zu den Spongien des Adriatischen Meeres (Drittes Supplement). (Wilhelm Engelmann: Leipzig): i-iv, 1-44, pls I-V.
page(s): 6 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt, 1862) Topsent, E. (1928). Spongiaires de l'Atlantique et de la Méditerranée provenant des croisières du Prince Albert ler de Monaco. <em>Résultats des campagnes scientifiques accomplies par le Prince Albert I. Monaco.</em> 74:1-376, pls I-XI.
page(s): 334 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt, 1862) Topsent, E.; Olivier, L. (1943). Eponges observées dans les parages de Monaco (fin). <em>Bulletin de l'Institut océanographique, Monaco.</em> 854: 1-12.
page(s): 9 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt, 1862) Burton, M. (1956). The sponges of West Africa. <em>Atlantide Report (Scientific Results of the Danish Expedition to the Coasts of Tropical West Africa, 1945-1946, Copenhagen).</em> 4: 111-147.
page(s): 138 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt, 1862) Lendenfeld, R. von. (1888). Descriptive Catalogue of the Sponges in the Australian Museum, Sidney. (Taylor & Francis: London). i-xiv, 1-260, pls 1-12.
page(s): 175-177; note: Lendenfeld had given as authority for this species Schulze 1879 (1880) [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt, 1862) Lévi, C. (1957). Spongiaires des côtes d'Israel. <em>Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel.</em> 6 B(3-4): 201-212.
page(s): 202 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt, 1862) Pansini, M. (1987). Littoral demosponges from the banks of the Strait of Sicily and the Alboran Sea. <i>In</i>: Vacelet J, Boury-Esnault N (eds) Taxonomy of Porifera from the N.E. Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. <em>NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series G, Ecological Sciences Springer, Heidelberg.</em> 13, 149-185. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Hircinia variabilis var. mammillaris Schmidt, 1868) Ferrer Hernández, F. (1914). Esponjas del Cantábrico. <em>Trabajos del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (Zoológica).</em> 14: 1-36.
page(s): 30 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt, 1862) Burton, M. (1936). The fishery ground near Alexandria. IX. Sponges. <em>Notes and Memoirs of the Fisheries Research Directorate, Cairo.</em> 17: 1-28.
page(s): 26 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt, 1862) Burton, M. (1926). Cambridge Expedition to the Suez canal, III. Report on the sponges. <em>Transactions of the Zoological Society.</em> 22: 71-83. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt, 1862) Vidal, A. (1967). Etude des fonds rocheux circalittoraux le long de la côte du Rousillon. <em>Vie et Milieu.</em> 18, 167-219.
page(s): 188 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source  (of Hircinia variabilis var. hirsuta Schmidt, 1862) Thiele, J. (1905). Die Kiesel- und Hornschwämme der Sammlung Plate. <i>Zoologische Jahrbücher Supplement 6 (Fauna Chilensis III)</i>. 407-496, pls 27-33. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Hircinia variabilis var. hirsuta Schmidt, 1862) Ferrer Hernández, F. (1914). Esponjas del Cantábrico. <em>Trabajos del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (Zoológica).</em> 14: 1-36.
page(s): 30 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Hircinia hebes Schmidt, 1862) Schmidt, O. (1868). Die Spongien der Küste von Algier. Mit Nachträgen zu den Spongien des Adriatischen Meeres (Drittes Supplement). (Wilhelm Engelmann: Leipzig): i-iv, 1-44, pls I-V.
page(s): 6 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Hircinia flavescens Schmidt, 1862) Schmidt, O. (1868). Die Spongien der Küste von Algier. Mit Nachträgen zu den Spongien des Adriatischen Meeres (Drittes Supplement). (Wilhelm Engelmann: Leipzig): i-iv, 1-44, pls I-V.
page(s): 6 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Ircinia panicea (Schmidt, 1862)) Van Soest, R.W.M. (2001). Porifera, <b><i>in</i></b>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification</i>. <em>Collection Patrimoines Naturels.</em> 50: 85-103. (look up in IMIS[details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Hircinia variabilis var. fistulata Szymanski, 1904) Van Soest, R.W.M. (2001). Porifera, <b><i>in</i></b>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification</i>. <em>Collection Patrimoines Naturels.</em> 50: 85-103. (look up in IMIS[details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Ircinia hirsuta (Schmidt, 1862)) Van Soest, R.W.M. (2001). Porifera, <b><i>in</i></b>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification</i>. <em>Collection Patrimoines Naturels.</em> 50: 85-103. (look up in IMIS[details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Ircinia lingua (Schmidt, 1868)) Van Soest, R.W.M. (2001). Porifera, <b><i>in</i></b>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification</i>. <em>Collection Patrimoines Naturels.</em> 50: 85-103. (look up in IMIS[details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source  (of Ircinia hebes (Schmidt, 1862)) Van Soest, R.W.M. (2001). Porifera, <b><i>in</i></b>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification</i>. <em>Collection Patrimoines Naturels.</em> 50: 85-103. (look up in IMIS[details]  OpenAccess publication 

source of synonymy  (of Hircinia variabilis var. mammillaris Schmidt, 1868) Lendenfeld, R. von. (1889). A Monograph of the Horny Sponges. (Trübner and Co.: London). iii-iv, 1-936, pls 1-50., available online at https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=chi.20735531;view=1up;seq=1 [details]   

source of synonymy  (of Hircinia variabilis var. hirsuta Schmidt, 1862) Lendenfeld, R. von. (1889). A Monograph of the Horny Sponges. (Trübner and Co.: London). iii-iv, 1-936, pls 1-50., available online at https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=chi.20735531;view=1up;seq=1 [details]   

source of synonymy  (of Euricinia variabilis (Schmidt, 1862)) Lendenfeld, R. von. (1889). A Monograph of the Horny Sponges. (Trübner and Co.: London). iii-iv, 1-936, pls 1-50., available online at https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=chi.20735531;view=1up;seq=1 [details]   

source of synonymy  (of Hircinia (Euricinia) variabilis var. hirsuta (Schmidt, 1862)) Lendenfeld, R. von. (1889). A Monograph of the Horny Sponges. (Trübner and Co.: London). iii-iv, 1-936, pls 1-50., available online at https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=chi.20735531;view=1up;seq=1
page(s): 559 [details]   

source of synonymy  (of Hircinia (Euricinia) variabilis var. flavescens Schmidt, 1862) Lendenfeld, R. von. (1889). A Monograph of the Horny Sponges. (Trübner and Co.: London). iii-iv, 1-936, pls 1-50., available online at https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=chi.20735531;view=1up;seq=1
page(s): 560 [details]   

redescription  (of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt, 1862) Schulze, F.E. (1880). Untersuchungen über den Bau und die Entwicklung der Spongien. Achte Mittheilung. Die Gattung <i>Hircinia</i> Nardo und <i>Oligoceras</i> n.g. <em>Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie.</em> V.
page(s): 12-26 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

new combination reference  (of Spongia licheniformis var. gamma Lamarck, 1814) Topsent, E. (1931 [1930]). Éponges de Lamarck conservées au Muséum de Paris. <em>Archives du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle. Paris.</em> (6) 5:1-56, pls I-IV. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

new combination reference  (of Hircinia (Euricinia) variabilis Schmidt, 1862) Lendenfeld, R. von. (1889). A Monograph of the Horny Sponges. (Trübner and Co.: London). iii-iv, 1-936, pls 1-50., available online at https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=chi.20735531;view=1up;seq=1
page(s): 557-559 [details]   

misapplication  (of Ircinia fasciculata sensu Vacelet, 1959) Lévi, C. (1969). Spongiaires du Vema Seamount (Atlantique Sud). <em>Bulletin du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle.</em> 41(4): 952-973.
page(s): 971 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

misapplication  (of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt, 1862) Desqueyroux, R. (1972). Demospongiae (Porifera) de la Costa de Chile. <em>Gayana.</em> 20: 3-71.
page(s): 41 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

misapplication  (of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt, 1862) Burton, M. (1954). Sponges. Pp. 215-239, pl. 9. <i>In</i>: The 'Rosaura' Expedition. Part 5. <em>Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology.</em> 2 (6).
page(s): 236; note: = Hircinia variabilis sensu de Laubenfels, 1936 allocated to Ircinia felix [details]  OpenAccess publication 

misapplication  (of Hircinia variabilis var. typica Nardo, 1847) Baar, R. (1904). Hornschwämme aus dem Pacific. Ergebnisse einer Reise nach dem Pacific, Schauinsland 1896 97. <em>Zoologische Jahrbücher Abteilung Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Thiere.</em> 19: 27-36.
page(s): 34 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

misapplication  (of Ircinia variabilis var. typica Nardo, 1847) Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M. (2003). Antarctic marine benthic diversity. <i>Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review</i>. 41: 47-114. (look up in IMIS[details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
 

Cotype (of Hircinia lingua Schmidt, 1868) MNHN DT 772, geounit Western Mediterranean [details]
Cotype (of Hircinia lingua Schmidt, 1868) MNHN DT 772, geounit Western Mediterranean [details]
From editor or global species database
Taxonomy The assignment of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt as type species of the genus Ircinia is controversial. It is proposed by Pronzato et al. (2004) to name Ircinia spongiastrum Nardo, 1833 as type species. This is a nomen nudum and as such not available as a name for a valid (type) species. Subsequently these authors assign I. spongiastrum to the synonymy of Hircinia variabilis Schmidt, 1862 by which act this would become the type species of Ircinia. Previously, authors have attempted to assign Spongia fasciculata Pallas, 1766, as type of Ircinia, but that is not possible because this was not among the species mentioned by Nardo, 1833 under Ircinia. For Hircinia variabilis Schmidt to become type species 'officially', a verdict from the Committee of the ICZN appears necessary. [details]
 

LanguageName 
English variable loggerhead sponge  [details]
German Variabler Lederschwamm  [details]
Japanese クロトゲカイメン [from synonym]  [details]
Ircinia variabilis
 Ircinia variabilis
[image from synonym]

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