Kelly, M.; Sim-Smith, C. (2012). A review of Ancorina, Stryphnus, and Ecionemia (Demospongiae, Astrophorida, Ancorinidae), with descriptions of new species from New Zealand waters. Zootaxa. 3480: 1–47.
A review of <i>Ancorina</i>, <i>Stryphnus</i>, and <i>Ecionemia</i> (Demospongiae, Astrophorida, Ancorinidae), with descriptions of new species from New Zealand waters
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New collections of New Zealand ancorinid sponges with sanidasters regular and sanidaster-like microrhabds, and amphiaster-like microscleres, has prompted us to review the integrity of ancorinid genera Ancorina Schmidt, Ecionemia Bowerbank, and Stryphnus Sollas (Demospongiae, Astrophorida, Ancorinidae). The varietal name in Ancorina progressa (von Lendenfeld 1907) var. diplococcus Dendy, 1924 has been elevated to full species status, and A. stalagmoides (Dendy, 1924) has been redescribed. Two new species, A. bellae sp. nov., from the Three Kings Islands, and A. globosa sp. nov., from Campbell Rise, have been described. Two New Zealand species previously assigned to Ancorina by Dendy (1924) have been transferred to Ecionemia: E. alata (Dendy 1924) and E. novaezelandiae (Dendy 1924). The genus Stryphnus is recorded for the first time in New Zealand waters, and 6 new species are described here; S. poculum sp. nov., S. levis sp. nov., S. novaezealandiae sp. nov., S. spelunca sp. nov., and S. atypicus sp. nov. Specimens identified as Asteropus simplex (Carter 1879) by Dendy (1924) and Bergquist (1968), a genus without triaenes, have been transferred to Stryphnus and renamed as S. ariena sp. nov., as all specimens contained rare triaenes. Discovery and description of new species, and re-evaluation of known New Zealand species, has enabled us to broaden and strengthen the diagnostic differences between Ancorina, Ecionemia, and Stryphnus, through comparison with related genera Asteropus Sollas and Melophlus Thiele, and Stellettinopsis Carter, genera in which triaenes are rare of absent. The phylogenetic origins of the microrhabds, sanidaster- and amphiaster-like microscleres of the group is considered, whether euasterose or streptasterose. The discovery of a suite of characters in the holotype of Stellettinopsis, shared with this subset of Ecionemia species, has resulted in a proposal to resurrect Stellettinopsis to accommodate them.