Opheliid polychaetes collected by the United States Antarctic Research Program and additional material from South America were made available for study through the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA. The Opheliidae from Antarctic seas were treated by Hartman (1966, 1967, 1978), who summarized earlier work and also described several new species. Of the five genera she recorded, two (Travisia and Kesun) have since been synonymized and one, Ammotrypane, has been referred to Ophelina; Hartman’s records therefore encompass four genera, three of which are represented in the present collections. No representatives of Euzonus (Thoracophelia) were found. The following species were recorded from Antarctica in the present study: Ophelia algida n. sp., Ophelina breviata (Ehlers, 1913), Ophelina cf. cylindricaudata (sensu Hartmann-Schröder and Rosenfeldt, 1989), Ophelina nematoides (Ehlers, 1913), Ophelina scaphigera (Ehlers, 1900), Ophelina cf. setigera (Hartman, 1978), Ophelina syringopyge (Ehlers, 1901), Travisia antarctica Hartman, 1967 (emended 1978), Travisia kerguelensis McIntosh, 1885, Travisia kerguelensis gravieri Monro, 1930, Travisia palmeri n. sp. and Travisia tincta n. sp. The new species of Ophelia is distinguished by having branchiae starting on chaetiger 2 (rather than on or after chaetiger 8 as in most species of this genus). Travisia palmeri has 22 chaetigers and is distinguished by long branchiae. Travisia kerguelensis gravieri is raised to full species status and renamed T. monroi. Travisia tincta n. sp., distinguished by a distinctive Methyl Green staining pattern and long branchiae, is described from off Peru.