Radashevsky, Vasily I.; Migotto, Alvaro E. (2017). First report of the polychaete Polydora hoplura (Annelida: Spionidae) from North and South America and Asian Pacific. Marine Biodiversity. 47(3): 859-868.
World Polychaeta Database (WPolyDb). Online first 4 June 2016, print published 2017-09-02, closed access
The spionid polychaete Polydora hoplura Claparède, 1868, is a harmful shell-borer accidentally transported with objects of aquaculture across the world. It was originally described from the Gulf of Naples, Italy, and later widely reported from European waters, South Africa, the Arabian Gulf, New Zealand, Australia and Tasmania. Here, for the first time, we describe adults and larvae of P. hoplura from Atlantic South America (Brazil), and report this species from Pacific North America (California, USA). We also examined material from Italy, New Zealand, Australia, Chile and Japan, and treat Polydora uncinata Sato-Okoshi, 1998, from Japan, as a junior synonym of P. hoplura. Consequently, we report P. hoplura for the first time in the Asian Pacific, Japan and South Korea, and in Pacific South America (Chile). The new records of P. hoplura from the American continents are cause for concern. The spread of this non-indigenous species may have negative impacts on the farm cultivation of oysters and abalone.