Reuscher, Michael. (2013). Biodiversity, Ecology, and Natural History of Polychaetous Annelids from the Gulf of Mexico [unpublished for taxonomy]. [ph.d. thesis]. Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, 263 p.
Biodiversity, Ecology, and Natural History of Polychaetous Annelids from the Gulf of Mexico [unpublished for taxonomy]
Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, 263 p.
World Polychaeta Database (WPolyDb). Digital copy available from the author
Chapt 1. Diversity, Distribution, and Zoogeography of Benthic Polychaetes in the Gulf of Mexico
Chapt 2. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Polychaete Assemblages on the Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Slope
Chapt 3. Cladistic Analysis of the Family Paraonidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) and the Genera Cirrophorus and Paradoneis Based on Morphological Characters.
Chapt 3 abstract: In this first cladistic study on the phylogeny of Paraonidae, morphological characters from type specimens and original descriptions were used in two maximum parsimony analyses. The first analysis was performed on the genus level. It included all paraonid genera, except for Aparaonis, which was found invalid, and outgroup genera of the morphologically most similar polychaete families Cossuridae, Orbiniidae, and Questidae. Monophyly of Paraonidae was supported; complete fusion of prostomium and peristomium and dorsal location of the anus are synapomorphies of Paraonidae. Paraonides is the sister taxon to the Cirrophorus - Paradoneis clade. The second analysis was performed on the species level and included all Cirrophorus and Paradoneis species and representatives of the paraonid genera Levinsenia and Paraonides as outgroup taxa. Three sister taxa that share the conspicuous elongation of notopodial postchaetal lobes in pre-anal segments were supported: 1) Paraonides, which lacks modified notochaetae, 2) a clade consisting of Paradoneis drachi and P. spinifera, which are characterized by the possession of notochaetal spines, and 3) a clade consisting of the remaining Cirrophorus and Paradoneis species, which all have bifurcate notochaetae. The two species with notochaetal spines are classified in a new genus. The analysis yielded a large number of most parsimonious cladograms and a strict consensus tree with few resolved phylogenetic relationships among the Cirrophorus and Paradoneis species with bifurcate notochaetae. The poor resolution of the phylogenetic relationships is caused by the low number of morphological characters in the simplistic paraonid polychaetes. According to the majority rule consensus tree, the prostomial antenna is a homoplastic character that has developed twice within the species complex. Therefore, Cirrophorus is regarded polyphyletic and Paradoneis is considered paraphyletic. I suggest that both genera be synonymized, with Cirrophorus being the senior synonym. Molecular markers or ultrastructural characters should be used to supplement the morphological data in future cladistic studies of Paraonidae