Carvalho, F. C.; Cárdenas, P.; Ríos, P.; Cristobo, J.; Rapp, H. T.; Xavier, J. R. (2020). Rock sponges (lithistid Demospongiae) of the Northeast Atlantic seamounts, with description of ten new species. PeerJ. 8: e8703.
Background: Lithistid demosponges, also known as rock sponges, are a polyphyletic
group of sponges which are widely distributed. In the Northeast Atlantic (NEA), 17
species are known and the current knowledge on their distribution is mainly
restricted to the Macaronesian islands. In the Mediterranean Sea, 14 species are
recorded and generally found in marine caves.
Methods: Lithistids were sampled in nine NEA seamounts during the scientific
expeditions Seamount 1 (1987) and Seamount 2 (1993) organized by the MNHN of
Paris. Collected specimens were identified through the analyses of external and
internal morphological characters using light and scanning electron microscopy, and
compared with material from various museum collections as well as literature
Results: A total of 68 specimens were analysed and attributed to 17 species across
two orders, seven families, and seven genera, representing new records of
distribution. Ten of these species are new to science, viz. Neoschrammeniella
inaequalis sp. nov., N. piserai sp. nov., N. pomponiae sp. nov., Discodermia arbor sp.
nov., D. kellyae sp. nov., Macandrewia schusterae sp. nov., M. minima sp. nov.,
Exsuperantia levii sp. nov., Leiodermatium tuba sp. nov. and Siphonidium elongatus
sp. nov., and are here described and illustrated. New bathymetric records were also
found for D. ramifera, D. verrucosa and M. robusta. The Meteor seamount group
has a higher