The Aphroditoidea collected during two joint expeditions of the Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Frankfurt, Germany, and the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, conducted in autumn of 1990 and spring of 1992 to Hainan Island, South China Sea, are presented herein. Altogether 386 specimens of Aphroditoidea (Annelida, Polychaeta) belonging to 35 species were identified. Families represented are the Acoetidae Kinberg, 1856 (1 species), Aphroditidae Kinberg, 1856 (2 species), Polynoidae Kinberg, 1856 (27 species), and Sigalionidae Kinberg, 1856 (4 species). Identification keys to the representatives of the latter two families are given. Of the 35 species, six, including one genus, are new to science: Russellhanleya striata gen. nov. et sp. nov., Harmothoe liaoi sp. nov., Harmothoe sinensis sp. nov., Lepidonopsis collinifer sp. nov., Subadyte micropapillata sp. nov., and Verrucapelma conifera sp. nov. Two poorly known species are redescribed: Paralentia annamita (Fauvel, 1934) and Lepidonotus hainanicus Uschakov, 1982, the latter having been originally described as L. dentatus hainanicus, but raised to species level herein. Eleven of the 35 species (more than 30%) represent new records for Hainan Island, with four of them being new to the South China Sea in general.