AfReMaS banner
About | Search taxa | Taxon tree | Search literature | Checklist | Stats | Log in

AfReMaS source details

Van Soest, R.W.M.; Braekman, J.-C.; Faulkner, D.J.; Hajdu, E.; Harper, M.K.; Vacelet, J. (1996). The genus Batzella: a chemosystematic problem. In: Willenz, P. (Ed.), Recent Advances in Sponge Biodiversity Inventory and Documentation. Bulletin de l'Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique: Série Biologie. 66 (Supplement): 89-102.
Van Soest, R.W.M.; Braekman, J.-C.; Faulkner, D.J.; Hajdu, E.; Harper, M.K.; Vacelet, J.
The genus <i>Batzella</i>: a chemosystematic problem. <i>In</i>: Willenz, P. (Ed.), Recent Advances in Sponge Biodiversity Inventory and Documentation.
Bulletin de l&rsquo;Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique: S&eacute;rie Biologie
66 (Supplement): 89-102
Biogenetically unrelated cyclic guanidine alkaloids and pyrroloquinoline alkaloids have been reported from sponges assigned to the genus Batzella. These sponges have been assigned to this genus because of their possession of a simple complement of thin strongyles in irregular plumoreticulate arrangement. Cyclic guanidine alkaloids were first reported from an alleged axinellid species from the Caribbean, Ptilocaulis aff. P. spiculifer. and subsequently from a second Caribbean specimen identified as Ptilocaulis spiculifer and at the same time from a Red Sea poecilosclerid, Hemimycale sp. Closely related compounds were described from a Caribbean specimen identified as Batzella sp. and also from the poecilosclerids Crambe crambe (Mediterranean) and Monanchora arbuscula (Brazil). Isobatzellins (pyrroloquinoline alkaloids) were reported from a black deep-water species from the Bahamas identified as Batzella sp. Chemically related pyrroloquinoline alkaloids were found in Pacific representatives of the fistular poecilosclerid genus Zyzzya, the hadromerid genus Latrunculia and the haplosclerid genus Prianos. Most of the voucher specimens involved in this puzzle were re-examined and several conclusions can be drawn : When inspected closely it appears, that the cyclic guanidine alkaloids are produced by sponges containing anisostrongyles, often in two categories, a thicker and a thinner one. Monanchora arbuscula, which has been recently discovered to produce these compounds, has monactinal spicules differentiated into a thinner subtylostyle and a thicker (tylo-) style, but many specimens have anisostrongylote modifications. Microscleres in Monanchora can be absent or very rare. By association, all the sponges from which cyclic guanidine alkaloids are known may be united in one family, possibly in a single wider defined genus Monanchora. However, further relationships with Crambe need to be studied. Both have cyclic guanidine alkaloids, both have megascleres of very variable shape and thickness, differentiated mostly into two overlapping categories, m icroscleres and other additional spicules are often rare or absent. Relationships with the type of Hemimycale, viz. H. columella remain obscure, but in view of the much larger spicules of that species and the intricate ectosomal specialization (lacking in the above mentioned specimens) it is possible that similarities between the Red Sea Hemimycale and the European species are the product of parallel evolution. The strongyles of sponges producing pyrroloquinoline alkaloids are perfect isostrongyles and in the ectosome these are arranged in a definite ectosomal tangential crust. A good proportion of these strongyles have a faint spination on the apices. Assignment of these sponges to Batzella rests on the properties of its type species Batzella inops. Examination of a type spicule slide of that species did not solve that question, but until further notice Batzella may be used for the deep-water material. A further unsolved problem that remains is the phylogenetic relationships of Batzella with Zyzzya and Latrunculia. The likelihoods of possible causes for this distribution of compounds are discussed.
Caribbean region
Systematics, Taxonomy
RIS (EndNote, Reference Manager, ProCite, RefWorks)
BibTex (BibDesk, LaTeX)
2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
2015-04-23 08:14:25Z
2018-06-23 11:27:46Z

Batzella Topsent, 1893 (additional source)