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WoRMS taxon details

Cytaeis tetrastyla Eschscholtz, 1829

117506  (

Cytaeis atlantica (Steenstrup, 1837) · unaccepted (unavailable name)
Cytaeis herdmani Browne, 1905 · unaccepted (synonym)
Cytaeis macrogaster Haeckel, 1879 · unaccepted (synonym)
Cytaeis nigritina Haeckel, 1879 · unaccepted (synonym)
Nigritina atlantica Steenstrup, 1837 · unaccepted (invalid, unpublished name)
marine, fresh, terrestrial
recent only
Eschscholtz, F. (1829). System der Acalephen. Eine ausführliche Beschreibung aller medusenartigen Strahltiere. Ferdinand Dümmler, Berlin, pp. 1-190, 116 pls., available online at
page(s): 104, pl. 8 fig. 2 [details]   
Note Atlantic Ocean, south of Equator  
From editor or global species database
Type locality Atlantic Ocean, south of Equator [details]
Distribution circum-(sub)tropical  
Distribution circum-(sub)tropical [details]
Schuchert, P. (2024). World Hydrozoa Database. Cytaeis tetrastyla Eschscholtz, 1829. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: on 2024-05-28
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
2015-03-26 09:51:16Z

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

original description Eschscholtz, F. (1829). System der Acalephen. Eine ausführliche Beschreibung aller medusenartigen Strahltiere. Ferdinand Dümmler, Berlin, pp. 1-190, 116 pls., available online at
page(s): 104, pl. 8 fig. 2 [details]   

original description  (of Cytaeis macrogaster Haeckel, 1879) Haeckel, E. (1879). Das System der Medusen. Erster Teil einer Monographie der Medusen. <em>Denkschriften der Medicinisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft zu Jena.</em> 1: XX+1-360, 320 plates., available online at
page(s): 74, pl. 6 fig. 1 [details]   

original description  (of Cytaeis herdmani Browne, 1905) Browne, E. T. (1905). Report on the medusae (Hydromedusae, Scyphomedusae and Ctenophora) collected by Prof. Herdman at Ceylon in 1902. <em>In: Rep. Government of Ceylon on Pearl Oyster Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar.</em> 4: 132-166, pls 1-4., available online at
page(s): 135, pl. 1 fig. 1, pl. 4 fig. 12 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

context source (Deepsea) Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO. The Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), available online at [details]   

context source (Bermuda) Sterrer, W. (1986). Marine fauna and flora of Bermuda: a systematic guide to the identification of marine organisms. <em>Wiley-Interscience Publication. Wiley.</em> 742 pp (Nemertini part). [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

basis of record van der Land, J.; Vervoort, W.; Cairns, S.D.; Schuchert, P. (2001). Hydrozoa, <B><I>in</I></B>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,</i> 50: pp. 112-120 (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Navas-Pereira, D. & Vannucci, M. (1991). The Hydromedusae and water masses of the Indian Ocean. <em>Bolm Inst. Oceanogr.</em> 39(1): 25-60. [details]   

additional source Schuchert P. (1996). The marine fauna of New Zealand: Athecate hydroids and their medusae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). <em>New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir.</em> 106 : 1-159. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Segura-Puertas, L., L. Celis, and L. Chiaverano. 2009. Medusozoans (Cnidaria: Cubozoa, Scyphozoa, and Hydrozoa) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 369–379 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Pre [details]   

additional source Liu, J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). Checklist of marine biota of China seas. <em>China Science Press.</em> 1267 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Cairns, S.D., L. Gershwin, F.J. Brook, P. Pugh, E.W. Dawson, O.V.; Ocaña, W. Vervoort, G. Williams, J.E. Watson, D.M. Opresko, P. Schuchert, P.M. Hine, D.P. Gordon, H.I. Campbell, A.J. Wright, J.A.Sánchez & D.G. Fautin. (2009). Phylum Cnidaria: corals, medusae, hydroids, myxozoans. <em>in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia.</em> pp. 59-101., available online at [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Schuchert P., Collins R. (2024). Additional observations on hydromedusae during night dives in the Gulf Stream. <em>Revue suisse de Zoologie.</em> 131(1): 43-120., available online at
page(s): 46, fig. 2A-G [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

redescription Schuchert, P. (2007). The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera part 2. <em>Revue suisse de Zoologie.</em> 114: 195-396., available online at
page(s): 275 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

identification resource Schuchert P.; Collins R. (2021). Hydromedusae observed during night dives in the Gulf Stream. <em>Revue suisse de Zoologie.</em> 128(2): 237-356., available online at
page(s): Fig. 2A-C; note: 16s barcode [details]  OpenAccess publication 
 Present  Present in aphia/obis/gbif/idigbio   Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 

From editor or global species database
Biology the polyp stage is unknown, perhaps Cytaeis nassa ? [details]

Type locality Atlantic Ocean, south of Equator [details]

Nigritina atlantica Steenstrup. – Kramp, 1961: 64, name not available.

Cytaeis tetrastyla Eschscholtz, 1829: 104, pl. 8 fig. 2.

? Bougainvillia mediterranea Busch, 1851: 21, pl. 2 figs, 10-11. – Haeckel, 1879: 73, synonym.

? Cytaeis pusilla Gegenbaur, 1856: 228, pl. 8 fig. 8. – Kramp, 1959a: 99, doubtful synonym.

Cytaeis macrogaster Haeckel, 1879. pl. 6 fig. 1. – Kramp, 1955a: 153, synonym.

Cytaeis nigritina Haeckel, 1879: 74, pl. 6 figs 2-5. – Maas, 1904: 8, pl. 1 figs 3-4. – Kramp, 1955a: 154, synonym.

? not Cytaeis vulgaris Agassiz & Mayer, 1899: 161, pl. 2 figs 3-5. – Mayer, 1910: 134. – Kramp, 1968: 27, perhaps valid.

Cytaeis herdmani Browne, 1905a: 135, pl. 1 fig. 1, pl. 4 fig. 12. – Browne, 1916: 177, synonym.

Cytaeis atlantica. – Mayer, 1910: 133, figs 71-72 [invalid combination].

? not Cytaeis pusilla. – Neppi & Stiasny, 1913: 23.

Cytaeis japonica Uchida, 1927: 215, fig. 39. – Kramp, 1959a: 99, synonym.

From other sources
Biology colonial [details]

Distribution circum-(sub)tropical [details]

Japanese オキアイタマクラゲ  [details]