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Palythoa caribaeorum Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860

288456  (

marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
Duchassaing P, Michelotti J. (1860). Mémoire sur les coralliaires des Antilles. <em>Mémoires de l'Academie des Sciences de Turin, séries 2.</em> 19: 279-365, pls 1-10., available online at
page(s): 53 [details]  OpenAccess publication 
Reimer, J.D.; Sinniger, F. (2024). World List of Zoantharia. Palythoa caribaeorum Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860. Accessed through: Odido, M.; Appeltans, W.; BelHassen, M.; Mussai, P.; Nsiangango, S.E.; Vandepitte, L.; Wambiji, N.; Zamouri, N. Jiddou, A.M. (Eds) (2024) African Register of Marine Species at: on 2024-04-20
Odido, M.; Appeltans, W.; BelHassen, M.; Mussai, P.; Nsiangango, S.E.; Vandepitte, L.; Wambiji, N.; Zamouri, N. Jiddou, A.M. (Eds) (2024). African Register of Marine Species. Palythoa caribaeorum Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860. Accessed at: on 2024-04-20
2008-01-16 10:35:54Z
2011-10-05 08:12:22Z
2011-12-22 10:27:48Z
2019-03-05 22:41:21Z

original description Duchassaing P, Michelotti J. (1860). Mémoire sur les coralliaires des Antilles. <em>Mémoires de l'Academie des Sciences de Turin, séries 2.</em> 19: 279-365, pls 1-10., available online at
page(s): 53 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

context source (Bermuda) Sterrer, W. (1986). Marine fauna and flora of Bermuda: a systematic guide to the identification of marine organisms. <em>Wiley-Interscience Publication. Wiley.</em> 742 pp (Nemertini part). [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

context source (Hexacorallia) Fautin, Daphne G. (2013). Hexacorallians of the World. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record den Hartog, J. C. & van der Land, J. (2000-2007). As a contribution to UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Reimer, Ono, Iwama, Takishita, Tsukahara & Maruyama. 2006. Morphological and molecular revision of Zoanthus (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) from southwestern Japan with description of two new species. Zoological Science    Volume: 23    Issue: 3    Pages: 261-275
page(s): 262 [details]   

additional source Fautin, D. G.; Daly, M. (2009). Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia, and Zoanthidea (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 349-357. <em>in: Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico-Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity.</em> A&M University Press, College Station, Texas., available online at [details]   

additional source Amaral, F. D.; Hudson, M. M.; da Silveira, F. L.; Migotto, A. E.; Pinto, S. M.; Longo, L. (2002). Cnidarians of Saint Peter and St. Paul Archipelago, Northeast Brazil. <em>Proceedings of the Ninth International Coral Reef Symposium.</em> 1, 567-571.
page(s): 567, 569, 570 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Karlson, R. H. 1980. Alternative competitive strategies in a periodically disturbed habitat. Bulletin of Marine Science 30(4): 894-890.
page(s): 896 [details]   

additional source Cubit, John and Williams, Suelynn 1983. The invertebrates of Galeta Reef (Caribbean Panama): a species list and bibliography. Atoll Research Bulletin 269: 1-45.
page(s): 9 [details]   

additional source Robertson, A.L., J. Lancaster, L.R. Belyea & A.G. Hildrew. (1997). Hydraulic habitat and the assemblage structure of stream benthic microcrustacea. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16(3):562-575.
page(s): 247 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Sebens, K. (1977). Autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition of coral reef zoanthids. In: Proceedings of the Third International Coral Reef Symposium. Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, May 1977 :397-404.
page(s): 397-403 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Haddon, A. and Shackleton, A. (1891). A revision of the British actiniæ. Part II.: The Zoantheæ. <i>Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society</i>. 4 (12): 609-672.
page(s): 631 [details]   

additional source Creed, J. C. (2006). Two invasive alien azooxanthellate corals, Tubastraea coccinea and Tubastraea tagusensis, dominate the native zooxanthellate Mussismilia hispida in Brazil. <em>Coral Reefs.</em> 25(3): 350-350., available online at
page(s): 350 [details]   

additional source Herberts, C. (1972). Etude systématique de quelques zoanthaires tempérés et tropicaux. <em>Tethys.</em> Supplement 3, pp. 69-156.
page(s): 78 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Ryland, J. S.; Lancaster, J. E. (2003). Revision of methods for separating species of Protopalythoa (Hexacorallia : Zoanthidea) in the tropical West Pacific. <em>Invertebrate Systematics.</em> 17(3): 407-428., available online at
page(s): 410, 411 [details]   

additional source Reimer, J. D.; Ono, S.; Takishita, K.; Tsukahara, J.; Maruyama, T. (2006). Molecular Evidence Suggesting Species in the Zoanthid Genera Palythoa and Protopalythoa (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) Are Congeneric. <em>Zoological Science.</em> 23(1): 87-94., available online at
page(s): 88, 90 [details]   

additional source Kaplan, E. H. (1982). A Field Guide to Coral Reefs: Caribbean and Florida. <em>Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.</em> pp 289.
page(s): 76 [details]   

additional source Fossa, S. A.; Nilsen, A. J. (1998). The Modern Coral Reef Aquarium. <em>Birgit Schmettkamp Verlag, Bornheim, Germany.</em> volume 2, pp 479.
page(s): 273, 279 [details]   

additional source Edmunds, P. J. (2000). Patterns in the distribution of juvenile corals and coral reef community structure in St. John, US Virgin Islands. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 202, 113-124
page(s): 115 [details]   

additional source Varela, C.; Guitart, B.; Ortiz, M.; Lalana, R. (2002). Los zoantídeos (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoanthiniaria), de la región occidental de Cuba. Revista de Investigaciones Marinas, 23, 3, 179-184
page(s): 179-181, Figure 1A [details]   

additional source Pax, F. (1910). Studien an westindischen Actinien. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Suppl. 11(2): 157-330
page(s): 162, 164, 257, 266-267, 284 [details]   

additional source Pax, F. (1924). Actiniarien, Zoantharien und Ceriantharien von Curaçao. Kungliga Zoologisch Genootschap Natura Artis Magistra (Amsterdam), 23, 93-122
page(s): 94, 109, 110, 119, 120 [details]   

additional source Suchanek, T. H.; Green, D. J. (1981). Interspecific competition between Palythoa caribaeorum and other sessile invertebrates on St. Croix reefs, U.S. Virgin Islands. Proceedings of the Fourth International Coral Reef Symposium, 2, 679-684
page(s): 679-684 [details]   

additional source Koehl, M. A. R. (1977). Water flow and the morphology of zoanthid colonies. Proceedings of the Third International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 437-444
page(s): 437-444 [details]   

additional source Mueller, E.; Haywick, W. (1995). Sediment assimilation and calcification by the western Atlantic reef zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum. Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco), 14(2): 89-100
page(s): 89-99 [details]   

additional source Moore, R. E.; Scheuer, P. J. (1971). Palytoxin: a new marine toxin from a coelenterate. Science, 172, 495-497
page(s): 495 [details]   

additional source Soong, K.; Shiau, Y. S.; Chen, C. P. (1999). Morphological and life history divergence of the zoanthid, Sphenopus marsupialis off the Taiwanese coast. Zoological Studies, 38(3): 333-343
page(s): 339 [details]   

additional source Sebens, K. P. (1982). Intertidal distribution of zoanthids on the Caribbean coast of Panama: Effects of predation and desiccation. Bulletin of Marine Science, 32(1): 316-335
page(s): 316-332 [details]   

additional source Seifert, R. (1928). Die Nesselkapseln der Zoantharien und ihre differentialdiagnostische Bedeutung. Zoologische Jahrbücher Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere, 55, 419-500
page(s): 421, 434, 435, 464, 465, 472-473, 474, 475 [details]   

additional source Walsh, G. E. (1967). An Annotated Bibliography of the Families Zoanthidae, Epizoanthidae, and Parazoanthidae (Coelenterata, Zoantharia). Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology. Honolulu., pp. 77.
page(s): 6 [details]   

additional source Gleibs, S.; Mebs, D.; Werding, B. (1995). Studies on the origin and distribution of palytoxin in a Caribbean coral reef. Toxicon, 33(11): 1531-1537
page(s): 1532, 1533, 1535 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S. (1997). Reproduction in Zoanthidea (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 31(1-3): 177-188
page(s): 179, 181, 182, 183 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S.; Babcock, R. C. (1991). Annual cycle of gametogenesis and spawning in a tropical zoanthid, Protopalythoa sp. Hydrobiologia, 216/217, 117-123
page(s): 121, 123 [details]   

additional source Ates, R. M. L. (1995). Colonial anemones - Zoanthiniaria. A review for the seriously interested marine aquarist. Aquarium Frontiers, Spring 1995, 10-13
page(s): 10 [details]   

additional source Bastidas, C.; Bone, D. (1996). Competitive strategies between Palythoa caribaeorum and Zoanthus sociatus (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) at a reef flat environment in Venezuela. Bulletin of Marine Science, 59, 3, 543-555
page(s): 543-554 [details]   

additional source Fadlallah, Y. H.; Karlson, R. H.; Sebens, K. P. (1984). A comparative study of sexual reproduction in three species of Panamanian zoanthids (Coelenterata: Anthozoa). Bulletin of Marine Science, 35(1): 80-89
page(s): 80-88 [details]   

additional source Fosså, S. A.; Nilsen, A. J. (1995). Korallenriff-Aquarium, 4. Nesseltiere in Korallenriff und für das Korallenriff-Aquarium. Birgit Schmettkamp Verlag. Bornheim, Germany., edition 1st, volume 4, pp. 447.
page(s): 259, 265 [details]   

additional source Echeverría, C. A.; Pires, D. de Oliveira; Medeiros, M. S.; Castro, C. B. (1997). Cnidarians of the Atol das Rocas, Brazil. Proceedings of the Eighth International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 443-446
page(s): 443, 444-445 [details]   

additional source Castro, C. B.; Echeverría, C. A.; Pires, D. de Oliveira; Fonseca, C. G. (1999). Distribuição do bentos (Cnidaria e Echinodermata) em costões rochosos da Baía da Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. PPGE-UFRJ. Rio de Janeiro, Brasil., volume VII, pp. 179-193
page(s): 179, 183-185, 187, 188, 191 [details]   

additional source Attaway, D. H.; Ciereszko, L. S. (1974). Isolation and partial characterization of Caribbean palytoxin. Proceedings of the Second International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 497-504
page(s): 497-504 [details]   

additional source Acosta, A.; Sammarco, P. W.; Duarte, L. F. (2001). Asexual reproduction in a zoanthid by fragmentation: the role of exogenous factors. Bulletin of Marine Science, 68(3): 363-381
page(s): 363-378 [details]   

additional source Oigman-Pszczol, S. S.; Figueiredo, M. A. de O.; Creed, J. C. (2004). Distribution of benthic communities on the tropical rocky subtidal of Armação dos Búzios, southeastern Brazil. Marine Ecology, 25(3): 173-190
page(s): 173, 177, 178, 180, 181, 183, 185, 187 [details]   

additional source Acosta, A.; Sammarco, P. W.; Duarte, L. F. (2005). New fission processes in the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum: description and quantitative aspects. Bulletin of Marine Science, 76(1): 1-26
page(s): 1-5, 6, 8, 10-13, 16-21 [details]   

additional source Ono, S.; Reimer, J. D.; Tsukahara, J. (2005). Reproduction of Zoanthus sansibaricus in the infra-littoral zone at Taisho Lava Field, Sakurajima, Kagoshima, Japan. Zoological Science, 22, 247-255
page(s): 247, 254 [details]   

additional source Boscolo, H. K.; Silveira, F. L. (2005). Reproductive biology of Palythoa caribaeorum and Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoanthidea) from the southeastern coast of Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 65, 1, 29-41
page(s): 29-39 [details]   

additional source Kuguru, B. L.; Winters, G.; Beers, S.; Santos, S. R.; Chadwick, N. E. (2007). Adaptation strategies of the corallimorpharian Rhodactis rhodostoma to irradiance and temperature. Marine Biology, 151, 1287-1298
page(s): 1294 [details]   

additional source Wirtz, P. (2008). Crustaceans associated with Cnidaria, Bivalvia, Echinoidea and Pisces at São Tomé and Príncipe islands. Arquipélago. Boletim da Universidade dos Açores. Ciências Biológicas e Marinhas [Life and Marine Sciences], 25, 63-69
page(s): 64 [details]   

additional source Reimer, J. D.; Takishita, K.; Ono, S.; Maruyama, T. (2007). Diversity and evolution in the zoanthid genus Palythoa (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia) based on nuclear ITS-rDNA. Coral Reefs, 26, 399-410
page(s): 400, 404 [details]   

additional source Wirtz, P.; de Melo, G.; De Grave, S. (2009). Symbioses of decapod crustaceans along the coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil. <em>Marine Biodiversity.</em> 2, 1-9.
page(s): 6 [details]   

additional source Gasparini, J. L.; Floeter, S. R.; Ferreira, C. E. L.; Sazima, I. (2005). Marine ornamental trade in Brazil. Biodiversity and Conservation, 14, 2883-2899
page(s): 2896 [details]   

additional source Hirose, M.; Obuchi, M.; Hirose, E.; Reimer, J. D. (2011). Timing of spawning and early development of Palythoa tuberculosa (Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) in Okinawa, Japan. Biological Bulletin, 220(23-31): 23-31
page(s): 25, 26 [details]   

additional source Amaral, F. D.; Ramos, C. A. C.; Leão, Z. M. A. N.; Kikuchi, R. K. P.; Lima, K. K. M.; Longo, L.; Cordeiro, R. T. S.; Lira, S. M. A.; Vasconcelos, S. L. (2009). Checklist and morphometry of benthic cnidarians from the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 50, 277-290
page(s): 281, 283 [details]   
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