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Mah, C. (2007). Systematics, phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Pentagonaster clade (Asteroidea: Valvatida: Goniasteridae. Invertebrate Systematics. 21: 311-339.
10.1071/IS06049 [view]
Mah, C.
Systematics, phylogeny and historical biogeography of the <i>Pentagonaster</i> clade (Asteroidea: Valvatida: Goniasteridae
Invertebrate Systematics
21: 311-339
Morphology-based phylogenetic hypotheses developed for living and fossil goniasterid asteroids, have provided several unique opportunities to study bathymetric and biogeographic shifts for an ecologically important group of prominent, megafaunal invertebrates. A cladistic analysis of 18 ingroup taxa employing 65 morphological characters resulted in a single most parsimonious tree. The tree supports assignment of the Atlantic Tosia parva and the Pacific Tosia queenslandensis to new, separate genera. The phylogenetic tree supports offshore-onshore bathymetric shifts between basal and derived taxa. The phylogeny is also consistent with historical events surrounding the separation of Antarctica from Australia and South Africa. Buterminaster from the Eocene La Meseta Formation, Antarctic Peninsula, was included in the phylogenetic analysis and is now supported as the only fossil species in the genus Pentagonaster. Pentagonaster stibarus is separated from synonymy of P. dubeni and resurrected as a species. The new genus Akelbaster shows unusual new structures that resemble cribiform organs, although their function has not been determined. One specific ingroup lineage, including Tosia and Pentagonaster attains a much larger adult size than those of a sister group and including basal taxa, suggesting that Cope’s Rule may apply to asteroids within this clade. Pentagonaster and related genera are revised; descriptions of four new genera and three new species are presented, including Akelbaster novaecaledoniae gen. nov., sp. nov., Ryukuaster onnae gen. nov., sp. nov., Eknomiaster beccae sp. nov., Pawsonaster parvus gen. nov., comb. nov., and Anchitosia queenslandensis gen. nov. comb. nov.
Australia to South-east Asia
South Africa
Phylogeny, Phylogenesis
Systematics, Taxonomy
RIS (EndNote, Reference Manager, ProCite, RefWorks)
BibTex (BibDesk, LaTeX)
2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
2013-09-17 09:10:59Z
2017-09-25 03:27:17Z

Akelbaster Mah, 2007 (original description)
Akelbaster novaecaledoniae Mah, 2007 (original description)
Anchitosia Mah, 2007 (original description)
Anchitosia queenslandensis (Livingstone, 1932) (additional source)
Eknomiaster H.E.S. Clark in H.E.S. Clark & D.G. McKnight, 2001 (additional source)
Eknomiaster beccae Mah, 2007 (original description)
Eknomiaster beccae Mah, 2007 (basis of record)
Eknomiaster macauleyensis H.E.S Clark in H.E.S. Clark & D.G. McKnight, 2001 (additional source)
Goniasteridae Forbes, 1841 (additional source)
Pawsonaster Mah, 2007 (original description)
Pawsonaster parvus (Perrier, 1881) (additional source)
Pentagonaster Gray, 1840 (additional source)
Pentagonaster stibarus H.L. Clark, 1914 (additional source)
Pentagonasterinae Perrier, 1884 (identification resource)
Pentagonasterinae Perrier, 1884 (basis of record)
Ryukuaster Mah, 2007 (original description)
Ryukuaster onnae Mah, 2007 (original description)
Toraster A.M. Clark, 1952 (additional source)
Toraster tuberculatus (Gray, 1847) (additional source)
Tosia Gray, 1840 (additional source)
Tosia australis Gray, 1840 (additional source)
Tosia magnifica (Muller & Troschel, 1842) (basis of record)
Tosia nobilis (Muller & Troschel, 1843) accepted as Tosia australis Gray, 1840 (basis of record)
Tosia parva (Perrier, 1881) accepted as Pawsonaster parvus (Perrier, 1881) (basis of record)
Tosia queenslandensis Livingstone, 1932 accepted as Anchitosia queenslandensis (Livingstone, 1932) (new combination reference)
New Caledonian Exclusive Economic Zone for Eknomiaster macauleyensis H.E.S Clark in H.E.S. Clark & D.G. McKnight, 2001 
Norfolk Ridge for Eknomiaster beccae Mah, 2007 
Port Phillip Bay for Tosia magnifica (Muller & Troschel, 1842) 
Ryukyu Islands for Anchitosia queenslandensis (Livingstone, 1932) 
South Africa for Toraster A.M. Clark, 1952 
South Australia (state) for Tosia australis Gray, 1840 
Tasmania for Tosia australis Gray, 1840 

Body thick, pentagonal (R/r= ~1.1-1.5). Marginal plates form distinct dorsal-facing border. Marginal plate ... [details]


Body form weakly stellate, overall size, relatively small, armtips rounded. Abactinal plates flattened to ... [details]


Body shape weakly stellate (R/r= 1.3-1.5). Arms short, triangular, disk broad. Armtips upturned. Abactinal ... [details]


Body form weakly to strongly stellate, relatively thin relative to Tosia or Pentagonaster. Arm tip, rapidly ... [details]


Believed to be a synonym by A.M. Clark (1953) and others (incl. L. Marsh) but upheld as valid by Mah (2007) [details]

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