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CaRMS taxon details

Paraonis Grube, 1873

129435  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:129435)

accepted
Genus
Species Paraonis fulgens (Levinsen, 1884)
Species Paraonis pygoenigmatica Jones, 1968

Species Paraonis gracilis (Tauber, 1879) accepted as Levinsenia gracilis (Tauber, 1879) (superseded combination)

Species Paraonis lyra Southern, 1914 represented as Paradoneis lyra (Southern, 1914) (Abbreviated formulation of basionym Paraonis (Paraonides) lyra)
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
recent only
feminine
Grube, Adolf-Eduard. (1873). Über ein paar neue Anneliden aus der Familie der Spiodeen. <em>Jahres-Bericht der Schlesichen Gesellschaft für vaterländische Cultur.</em> 50: 57-58., available online at https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/38491131
page(s): 58 [details]  OpenAccess publication 
Note Type species Aonides fulgens Levinsen 1884 by...  
From editor or global species database
Type species Type species Aonides fulgens Levinsen 1884 by ICZN Opinion 1139, replaces Paraonis tenera Grube, 1873, which was the type by monotypy, the natural type. This was a distorting unnecessary interference by the ICZN Commissioners of the time. [details]
description Nuchal organs prostomial; median antenna absent. Modified setae neuropodial.  
description Nuchal organs prostomial; median antenna absent. Modified setae neuropodial. [details]
Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2021). World Polychaeta database. Paraonis Grube, 1873. Accessed through: Kennedy, M.K., L. Van Guelpen, G. Pohle, L. Bajona (Eds.) (2021) Canadian Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/carms/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=129435 on 2022-09-28
Nozères, C., Kennedy, M.K. (Eds.) (2022). Canadian Register of Marine Species. Paraonis Grube, 1873. Accessed at: https://marinespecies.org/carms/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=129435 on 2022-09-28
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2008-03-26 11:36:43Z
changed
2016-09-26 14:38:18Z
changed
2019-04-15 21:51:07Z
changed

original description Grube, Adolf-Eduard. (1873). Über ein paar neue Anneliden aus der Familie der Spiodeen. <em>Jahres-Bericht der Schlesichen Gesellschaft für vaterländische Cultur.</em> 50: 57-58., available online at https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/38491131
page(s): 58 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Fauchald, K. (1977). The polychaete worms, definitions and keys to the orders, families and genera. <em>Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County: Los Angeles, CA (USA), Science Series.</em> 28:1-188., available online at http://www.vliz.be/imisdocs/publications/123110.pdf [details]   

additional source Bellan, G. (2001). Polychaeta, <i>in</i>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. <em>Collection Patrimoines Naturels.</em> 50: 214-231. (look up in IMIS)
note: listing only [details]   

additional source Day, J. H. (1967). [Sedentaria] A monograph on the Polychaeta of Southern Africa. Part 2. Sedentaria. British Museum (Natural History), London. pp. 459–842., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/8596  [details]   

status source Strelzov, V.; Uschakov, P. (1975). <i>Paraonis</i> Grube, 1873 (Polychaeta, Paraonidae): proposed use of the plenary powers to designate a type-species in harmony with current use. Z.N.(S.) 1993. <em>Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature.</em> 32(3): 146-148., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12225761 [details]   

status source Strelzov, V.; Uschakov, P. (1972). <i>Paraonis</i> Grube, 1872 (Polychaeta, Paraonidae): proposed suppression under the plenary powers in favour of <i>Paraonis</i> Cerruti, 1909. Z.N.(S.) 1993. <em>Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature.</em> 29(4), 209-211., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12224972 [details]   

subsequent type designation International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). (1979). Opinion 1139: <i>Paraonis</i> Grube, 1873 (Polychaeta, Paraonidae): designation of a type species under the plenary powers. <em>Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature.</em> 36(2): 114-118., available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12227017 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
From editor or global species database
Authority The authorship and publication date of the genus is Grube, 1873, and always has been. Grube used Paraonis for Paraonis tenera, described without figures. As P. tenera is supposedly indeterminable Strelzov & Uschakov (1972) first proposed to the ICZN instead changing the authorship to Cerruti, 1909, who had included in Paraonis P. gracilis (Tauber), P. tenera Grube, P. fulgens (Levinsen) and Cerruti's own new species P. paucibranchiata and P. neapolitana. This initial proposal was replaced by a second one in which Strelzov & Uschakov (1975) wrote "It has been pointed out to us, however, that this position is untenable for two reasons. First, there is no such nominal genus as Paraonis Cerruti, 1909 ; Cerruti was plainly adopting Grube's generic name, not proposing a new one. Secondly, if Paraonis Grube, I 873 is suppressed, it is not "Paraonis Cerruti, 1909" that replaces it as the valid name for the species that lack a dorsal antenna, but Levinsenia a name that has not been used as a valid name for over 60 years." . Opinion 1139 of the ICZN did not change the authorship of Paraonis from Grube, but did assign to it a type species not in the original description (Paraonis was monotypic) [G. Read, April 2019]. [details]

Editor's comment From a current perspective it is difficult to see why the ICZN voted in 1979 to interfere to disrupt greatly the concept of Paraonis Grube, and the concept of Levinsenia, and the history of the family. The usual taxonomic revisionary procedures and investigations would have adequately assigned the names as the original authors intended (Paraonis was probably senior to the tentacled genus Aricidea, as Strelzov & Uschakov indeed suggested). The original request to the ICZN was to change the author and date of Paraonis to a later author, namely Cerruti, although Cerruti's article was admitted to have errors of interpretation (in synonymizing Paraonis and Levinsenia). The fundamental objection to this idea is that Cerruti did not author a genus Paraonis, and there would still be the problem of selecting a type species. Eventually the type decided upon was one of the two species included by Mesnil when he named Levinsenia (a name erected subsequent to Paraonis), namely Aonides fulgens. Two previously described Aonides species, 'fulgens' and 'gracilis' were included by Mesnil in new genus Levinsenia. So a species included in new genus Levinsenia became type of old genus Paraonis, in order to agree with a mistaken concept of Paraonis, in order to continue that mistaken concept (as the applicants write: "to preserve the generic name Paraonis and the family-name Paraonidae in the [clearly mistaken] meanings that have been given to them since 1909). This was not a good idea or a necessary change. Paraonidae was not under threat from a change in understanding of the nature of Paraonis. The outcome became unexpectedly adverse for Strelzov because the ICZN made Aonides gracilis type of Levinsenia, although they had not been asked to do this, thus making a junior synonym of Levinsenia the fate of the new genus Tauberia Strelzov, 1973, which was based on A. gracilis,. In their revised application Strelzov & Uschakov (1975) had said Levinsenia was "a name that has not been used as a valid name for over 60 years", and they clearly wanted it to remain unused, but today it has 21 species. [comment by G Read, April 2019] [details]

Type species Type species Aonides fulgens Levinsen 1884 by ICZN Opinion 1139, replaces Paraonis tenera Grube, 1873, which was the type by monotypy, the natural type. This was a distorting unnecessary interference by the ICZN Commissioners of the time. [details]

From other sources
description Nuchal organs prostomial; median antenna absent. Modified setae neuropodial. [details]
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