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CaRMS taxon details

Spionidae Grube, 1850

913  (

Genus Paraprionospio Caullery, 1914
Genus Polydora Bosc, 1802
  » Species Polydora ciliata (Johnston, 1838)
  » Species Polydora cornuta Bosc, 1802
  » Subgenus Polydora (Polydora)
    » Species Polydora (Polydora) quadrilobata Jacobi, 1883 accepted as Dipolydora quadrilobata (Jacobi, 1883) (superseded alternate representation)
    » Species Polydora (Polydora) socialis (Schmarda, 1861) accepted as Dipolydora socialis (Schmarda, 1861) (superseded subsequent combination)
  » Species Polydora websteri Hartman in Loosanoff & Engle, 1943
  » Species Polydora aggregata Blake, 1969
  » Species Polydora commensalis Andrews, 1891 accepted as Dipolydora commensalis (Andrews, 1891) (superseded original combination)
  » Species Polydora concharum Verrill, 1880 accepted as Dipolydora concharum (Verrill, 1880) (superseded original combination)
  » Species Polydora ligni Webster, 1879 accepted as Polydora cornuta Bosc, 1802 (subjective synonym)
  » Species Polydora caeca (Örsted, 1843) accepted as Dipolydora coeca (Örsted, 1843) (superseded combination, alternative spelling)
  » Species Polydora hartmanae Blake, 1971 accepted as Dipolydora hartmanae (Blake, 1971) (superseded original combination)
  » Species Polydora caulleryi Mesnil, 1897 accepted as Dipolydora caulleryi (Mesnil, 1897) (superseded original combination)
  » Species Polydora socialis (Schmarda, 1861) accepted as Dipolydora socialis (Schmarda, 1861) (recombination)
  » Species Polydora quadrilobata Jacobi, 1883 accepted as Dipolydora quadrilobata (Jacobi, 1883) (superseded original combination)
  » Species Polydora cardalia Berkeley, 1927 accepted as Dipolydora cardalia (Berkeley, 1927) (superseded original combination)
  » Species Polydora gracilis Verrill, 1880 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum, indeterminable from description)
Genus Prionospio Malmgren, 1867
  » Species Prionospio cirrifera Wirén, 1883
  » Species Prionospio steenstrupi Malmgren, 1867
  » Species Prionospio cristata Foster, 1971
  » Species Prionospio heterobranchia Moore, 1907
  » Species Prionospio dayi (Foster, 1969)
  » Species Prionospio tenuis (Verrill, 1880) accepted as Prionospio steenstrupi Malmgren, 1867 (subsequent combination of subjective synonym)
  » Species Prionospio cirrobranchiata Day, 1961 accepted as Aonidella cirrobranchiata (Day, 1961) (superseded original combination)
  » Subgenus Prionospio (Prionospio) [auctorum] accepted as Prionospio Malmgren, 1867 (superseded combination)
  » Species Prionospio malmgreni Claparède, 1869 (uncertain > taxon inquirendum, indeterminable, probably based on a composite of several species (fide Maciolek, 1985))
Genus Pygospio Claparède, 1863
Genus Scolecolepides Ehlers, 1907
  » Species Scolecolepides viridis (Verrill, 1873) accepted as Marenzelleria viridis (Verrill, 1873) (superseded subsequent combination)
Genus Scolelepis Blainville, 1828
Genus Spio Fabricius, 1785
Genus Spiophanes Grube, 1860
Genus Streblospio Webster, 1879
Genus Dipolydora Verrill, 1881
Genus Dispio Hartman, 1951
Genus Laonice Malmgren, 1867
Genus Marenzelleria Mesnil, 1896
Genus Microspio Mesnil, 1896
  » Species Microspio pigmentata (Reish, 1959)
  » Species Microspio theeli Söderström, 1920 accepted as Spio theeli (Söderström, 1920) (superseded original combination)
Genus Aonidella López-Jamar, 1989
Genus Aonides Claparède, 1864

Genus Apoprionospio Foster, 1969 accepted as Prionospio Malmgren, 1867 (subjective synonymy)
  » Species Apoprionospio dayi Foster, 1969 accepted as Prionospio dayi (Foster, 1969) (superseded original combination)
Genus Minuspio Foster, 1971 accepted as Prionospio Malmgren, 1867 (subjective synonym)
  » Species Minuspio cirrifera (Wirén, 1883) accepted as Prionospio cirrifera Wirén, 1883 (superseded combination)
  » Species Minuspio cirrobranchiata (Day, 1961) accepted as Aonidella cirrobranchiata (Day, 1961) (superseded subsequent combination)
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
recent only
Grube, Adolf Eduard. (1850). Die Familien der Anneliden. <em>Archiv für Naturgeschichte, Berlin.</em> 16(1): 249-364., available online at
page(s): 314; note: originally as Spiodea [details]   
Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2021). World Polychaeta Database. Spionidae Grube, 1850. Accessed through: Nozères, C., Kennedy, M.K. (Eds.) (2021) Canadian Register of Marine Species at: on 2022-01-28
Nozères, C., Kennedy, M.K. (Eds.) (2022). Canadian Register of Marine Species. Spionidae Grube, 1850. Accessed at: on 2022-01-28
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
2008-03-26 11:36:43Z
2018-06-24 14:11:57Z

original description Grube, Adolf Eduard. (1850). Die Familien der Anneliden. <em>Archiv für Naturgeschichte, Berlin.</em> 16(1): 249-364., available online at
page(s): 314; note: originally as Spiodea [details]   

identification resource Blake, J.A. 1980. Polychaeta Spionidae from American and Antarctic Seas. American Zoologist 20(4): 264. [details]   

identification resource Maciolek Blake, Nancy. 1983: Systematics of Atlantic Spionidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) with special reference to deep-water species. Ph. D. thesis. Boston University  [details]   

identification resource Abe, Hirokazu; Sato-Okoshi, Waka. (2021). Molecular identification and larval morphology of spionid polychaetes (Annelida, Spionidae) from northeastern Japan. <em>ZooKeys.</em> 1015: 1-86., available online at
note: keys and photos of larvae [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

identification resource Fauchald, K. (1977). The polychaete worms, definitions and keys to the orders, families and genera. <em>Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County: Los Angeles, CA (USA), Science Series.</em> 28:1-188., available online at [details]   

identification resource Blake, J.A. 1996. Family Spionidae Grube, 1850. pages 81-223. IN: Blake, James A.; Hilbig, Brigitte; and Scott, Paul H. Taxonomic Atlas of the Benthic Fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and Western Santa Barbara Channel. 6 - The Annelida Part 3. Polychaeta: Orbiniidae to Cossuridae. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History. Santa Barbara [details]   
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
From editor or global species database
Classification Classification of Spionidae into subfamilies has been relatively little used as, apart from the Polydora-group of genera, the groupings are not obvious. The Polydora-group are also seen as tribe Polydorini (polydorins) following Benham (1896) who created Polydoridae solely for the genus Polydora, based on the chaetiger 5 spines and a lack of branchiae on chaetigers 1-5.
Mesnil (1896) analysed the relationship of existing spionid genera, but did not assign subgroup names to them. Mesnil (1897) removed Disoma (now Trochochaeta) from Spionidae to Disomidae (now Trochochaetidae).

Söderström (1920) created subfamilies Spioninae, Nerininae, and Laonicinae.
Spioninae Söderström included Spio, Microspio, Pygospio, and Polydora (Boccardia was not mentioned, but it would also include Boccardia and the other Polydora-group genera). According to Blake (1996:82) these genera had thin-membraned eggs, long-headed sperm, and egg capsules, whereas all other spionids had thick-membraned eggs and short-headed sperm.
Nerininae Söderström included Nerine (now Scolelepis or Malacoceros), Colobranchus (now Malacoceros), Scolecolepis (now Scolelepis), and Aonides. Thus the current genera are Scolelepis, Malacoceros, and Aonides.
Laonicinae Söderström included Laonice, Prionospio, and Spiophanes.

As there are now about 40 valid Spionidae genera, Söderström's classification would require a new analysis to apply it further. Blake & Arnofsky (1999) could confirm only a clade for subfamily Spioninae in their morphological analysis. As yet (May 2021) there appears to be no molecular analysis which examines the relationship of the main spionid genera, or genera in apparently closely related families.

English spiosspionidsspionid worms  [details]
German Haarwürmer  [details]
Japanese スピオ科  [details]
To Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History (YPM IZ 095717)
To Yale Peabody Mus...
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