(Sportellidae), including one new species, which are commensals with burrowing echiuran worms. The burrows of Ikedosoma gogoshimense
were inhabited by Basterotia gouldi
at intertidal gravelly mud flats in the central Seto Inland Sea, whereas those of Ochetostoma erythrogrammon
were inhabited by Basterotia carinata
n. sp. at an intertidal gravelly coral-sand flat at Amami-Ohshima Island. Both bivalve species were found embedded in the burrow wall with their posterior inhalant and exhalant apertures gaping to the burrow lumen, suggesting that they utilize the water currents created by host echiurans. The posteriorly robust, laterally inflated shell with developed carina is considered an adaptation to symbiotic life, as it is exposed to pressure caused by the host’s persistent undulating activity. Females of Basterotia
bivalves were larger than males, suggesting size-dependent sex change, and possessed brooded veligers in the ctenidium. Our findings suggest that species-specific intimate association with echiurans may be widespread among the Sportellidae bivalves, whose biology remains poorly understood.
The burrows created by benthos in tidal flats provide various habitats to other organisms. Echiuran burrows are unique among these in being persistently disturbed by the host’s undulating activity, but little is known on how symbionts adapt to such a unique habitat. We report here the morphological and ecological adaptation by two bivalve species of