In 1971, Hartmann-Schröder established the subfamily Travisiinae to include the opheliid genera Dindymenides, Kesun , and Travisia . Later, Dauvin & Bellan (1994) synonymized Dindymenides and Kesun with Travisia , leaving a single genus in the subfamily. Unlike opheliids, which generally have elongate, sleek bodies with lateral and ventral grooves and which are often capable of rapid burrowing, most species of Travisia have relatively short bodies that are thick and grublike with a papillated integument that bears a superficial similarity to that of the Scalibregmatidae. However, species of the two families differ significantly when details of soft morphology and chaetae are considered. Based on morphological comparisons and recent molecular phylogenetic results, it is evident that Travisia should be removed from the Opheliidae. However, Travisia does not belong in the Scalibregmatidae as is now accepted by several authors (Martinez et al. 2012, 2013, Law et al. 2013); at best, the two families appear to be sister groups. Rather than squeeze Travisia into the Scalibregmatidae and develop a very complex family-level definition, we prefer to treat these taxa as separate families. Therefore, we here reject the inclusion of Travisia in either Opheliidae or Scalibregmatidae and establish Hartmann-Schröder’s opheliid subfamily Travisiinae as a separate polychaete family.