Carballo, J.L.; Cruz-Barraza, J.A.; Gómez, P. (2004). Taxonomy and description of Clionaid sponges (Hadromerida, Clionaidae) from the Pacific Ocean of Mexico. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society of London. 141 (3): 353-397.
Carballo, J.L.; Cruz-Barraza, J.A.; Gómez, P.
Taxonomy and description of Clionaid sponges (Hadromerida, Clionaidae) from the Pacific Ocean of Mexico.
Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society of London
A large collection of clionaid sponges collected in 58 different localities from the Pacific coast of Mexico was studied, and 15 species belonging to four genera were identified. Six species are new to science: in the genus Cliona, C. papillae sp. nov. and C. vallartense sp. nov. ; in the genus Thoosa, T. calpulli sp. nov. and T. mismalolli sp. nov. ; and in the genus Spheciospongia, S. ruetzleri sp. nov. and S. incrustans sp. nov. The new combinations Cliona californiana (de Laubenfels, 1932) comb. nov. and Cliona raromicrosclera (Dickinson, 1945) comb. nov. are also proposed. Pseudosuberites pseudos is considered to be synonymous to Cliona californiana. In addition, the validity of Pione mazatlanensis (Hancock, 1867) is also considered. Other Cliona species identified are Cliona vermiferaHancock, 1867, Pione carpenteri (Hancock, 1867 as Cliona carpenteri), C. amplicavataRützler, 1974, Cliona flavifodinaRützler, 1974, and Cliona euryphyllaTopsent, 1887. Cliona amplicavata and C. flavifodina are recorded for the first time in the Pacific Ocean and C. euryphylla for the east Pacific Ocean. The systematics, taxonomy and distribution of all these species are included and detailed species descriptions are provided based on newly collected material and previous descriptions from the literature. Discussions on problematic taxonomic issues are also presented, and the most useful parameters to differentiate species are highlighted. In addition, the morphology of the spirasters has been studied through SEM analysis, and the main characteristics have been evaluated from a taxonomic point of view in order to discriminate between species.