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Álvarez-Campos, Patricia; Giribet, Gonzalo; San Martín, Guillermo; Rouse, Greg W.; Riesgo, Ana. (2017). Straightening the striped chaos: systematics and evolution of Trypanosyllis and the case of its pseudocryptic type species Trypanosyllis krohnii (Annelida, Syllidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 179(3): 492–540.
275090
10.1111/zoj.12443 [view]
Álvarez-Campos, Patricia; Giribet, Gonzalo; San Martín, Guillermo; Rouse, Greg W.; Riesgo, Ana
2017
Straightening the striped chaos: systematics and evolution of <i>Trypanosyllis</i> and the case of its pseudocryptic type species <i>Trypanosyllis krohnii</i> (Annelida, Syllidae)
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society
179(3): 492–540
Publication
World Polychaeta Database (WPolyD)
Available for editors  PDF available
All members of the syllid genus Trypanosyllis show distinctive flattened, ribbon-like bodies and a pharynx armed with a trepan; however, the phylogenetic relationships within this genus remain unsettled, especially with respect to the genera Eurysyllis and Xenosyllis (morphologically similar). To resolve this systematic uncertainty we analysed the phylogenetic relationships of a worldwide sampling of specimens of Trypanosyllis and three related genera using multiple molecular markers. We show that Trypanosyllis as presently construed is paraphyletic, and identify a clade of striped species that were previously all considered to be Trypanosyllis zebra (Grube, 1860). We outline the case to consider Trypanosyllis krohnii Claparède, 1864 as the type species of the genus, instead of Trypanosyllis zebra. Trypanosyllis krohnii (interpreted as Trypanosyllis zebra by recent authors) was previously believed to be cosmopolitan, but we show that it includes at least seven cryptic and pseudocryptic species, five of which are described herein: Trypanosyllis kalkin sp. nov., Trypanosyllis californiensis sp. nov., Trypanosyllis luquei sp. nov., Trypanosyllis leivai sp. nov., and Trypanosyllis taboadai sp. nov. In addition, Trypanedenta gemmipara (Johnson, 1901) comb. nov. and Trypanedenta gigantea (McIntosh, 1885) comb. nov., previously included in Trypanosyllis, are here transferred to Trypanedenta Imajima & Hartman, 1964, and Pseudosyllis brevipennis Grube, 1863 [previously named Trypanosyllis coeliaca (Claparède, 1868)] is transferred to the resurrected genus Pseudosyllis Grube, 1863. Overall our results show a complex scenario of speciation, with cases of pseudocryptic species that correspond to geographically restricted lineages.
Phylogeny, Phylogenesis
Systematics, Taxonomy
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2017-03-15 13:12:03Z
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 Editor's comment

The type species is Trypanosyllis krohnii. This has always been true as it is a type by monotypy, and thus no other ... [details]

 Etymology

The specific epithet californiensis refers to the type locality of the species, the state of California (USA). [details]

 Etymology

The specific epithet kalkin is an adjective from the Mapuche language of the Chilean indigenous population, meaning ... [details]

 Etymology

The species is named after Carlos Leiva, "colleague and friend of P.A.-C. and A.R., for his help collecting and ... [details]

 Etymology

The species is named after D. Ángel A. Luque, "colleague, friend, and mentor in our malacological endeavours" ... [details]

 Etymology

The species is named after Dr. Sergi Taboada, "for his help collecting and sorting part of the analysed material, ... [details]

 Habitat

Amongst Corallina sp., calcareous and brown algae, kelp and sponges, between 3-17 m. [details]

 Type locality

La Jolla, San Diego, California, USA, Pacific Ocean (32.866944°, -117.255833°). [details]

 Type locality

Las Cruces, Valparaiso region, Chile, Pacific Ocean (-33.847778°, -72.0575°). [details]

 Type locality

Luzon Island, 'Mainif Point', between Balayan Bay and Batangas Bay, Philippines (13.68°, 120.855556°). [details]

 Type locality

Anza Cove, San Diego, California, USA, Pacific Ocean (32.795278°, -117.212778°). [details]

 Type locality

Cavalli Islands, North Island, New Zealand, South Pacific Ocean (-34.984444°, 173.944167°). [details]

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