Banner
Introduction | Search taxa | Taxon tree | Specimens | Attributes | Literature | Photo gallery | Stats | Log in

Echinoidea source details

Clark, A.M. & Courtman-Stock, J. (1976). The echinoderms of southern Africa. Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp.
6324
Clark, A.M. & Courtman-Stock, J.
1976
The echinoderms of southern Africa
Publ. No. 766. British Museum (Nat. Hist), London. 277 pp
Publication
This is a key to the Echinoderms of South Africa (except the Holothurians). The area is limited to Capricorn (South-east) and to Walvis bay (South-west). After all the surveys done by H.L. Clark (1923) and Mortensen (1933a, of the Asterozoa), only a small number of new taxa have been discovered. The number of species included is ca. 280.
South Africa
Bathyal, Continental slope
Fauna and Flora, Faunistic inventories, Checklists, Catalogues
Faunistic guides, Identification guides
Systematics, Taxonomy
RIS (EndNote, Reference Manager, ProCite, RefWorks)
BibTex (BibDesk, LaTeX)
Date
action
by
2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
created
db_admin

Aspidodiadema africanum Mortensen, 1939 (basis of record)
Astropyga radiata (Leske, 1778) (additional source)
Brisaster capensis (Studer, 1880) (basis of record)
Caenopedina capensis H.L. Clark, 1923 (basis of record)
Catopygus loveni Studer, 1880 accepted as Tropholampas loveni (Studer, 1880) (source of synonymy)
Chaetodiadema africanum H.L. Clark, 1925 (basis of record)
Cidaris radiata Leske, 1778 accepted as Astropyga radiata (Leske, 1778) (source of synonymy)
Cidaris toreumatica Klein, 1734 accepted as Temnopleurus toreumaticus (Leske, 1778) (source of synonymy)
Cidarites pistillaris Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Prionocidaris pistillaris (Lamarck, 1816) (source of synonymy)
Clypeaster eurychorius H.L. Clark, 1925 (basis of record)
Coelopleurus floridianus A. Agassiz, 1872 accepted as Coelopleurus floridanus A. Agassiz, 1872 (basis of record)
Coelopleurus interruptus Döderlein, 1910 (basis of record)
Coelopleurus maillardi (Michelin, 1862) (basis of record)
Dermechinus horridus (A. Agassiz, 1879) (additional source)
Echinocardium Gray, 1825 (additional source)
Echinocardium capense Mortensen, 1907 (basis of record)
Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) (additional source)
Echinocyamus elegans Mazzetti, 1893 (basis of record)
Echinolampas crassa (Bell, 1880) (basis of record)
Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758) (source of synonymy)
Echinometra mathaei (Blainville, 1825) (additional source)
Echinostrephus molaris (Blainville, 1825) (additional source)
Echinothrix calamaris (Pallas, 1774) (additional source)
Echinothrix desori (L. Agassiz in L. Agassiz & Desor, 1846) accepted as Echinothrix calamaris (Pallas, 1774) (source of synonymy)
Echinus calamaris Pallas, 1774 accepted as Echinothrix calamaris (Pallas, 1774) (source of synonymy)
Echinus gilchristi Bell, 1904 (basis of record)
Echinus gratilla Linnaeus, 1758 accepted as Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus, 1758) (source of synonymy)
Echinus hirsuta Döderlein, 1905 accepted as Echinus gilchristi Bell, 1904 (source of synonymy)
Echinus horridus A. Agassiz, 1879 accepted as Dermechinus horridus (A. Agassiz, 1879) (source of synonymy)
Echinus lacunosus Linnaeus, 1758 accepted as Schizaster lacunosus (Linnaeus, 1758) (source of synonymy)
Echinus mathaei Blainville, 1825 accepted as Echinometra mathaei (Blainville, 1825) (source of synonymy)
Echinus molaris Blainville, 1825 accepted as Echinostrephus molaris (Blainville, 1825) (source of synonymy)
Echinus pileolus Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Toxopneustes pileolus (Lamarck, 1816) (source of synonymy)
Echinus variolaris Lamarck, 1816 accepted as Stomopneustes variolaris (Lamarck, 1816) (source of synonymy)
Ellipsechinus lukunter (Linnaeus, 1758) accepted as Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758) (source of synonymy)
Eurypatagus parvituberculatus (H.L. Clark, 1924) (additional source)
Hygrosoma petersi (A. Agassiz, 1880) accepted as Hygrosoma petersii (A. Agassiz, 1880) (basis of record)
Keraiaphorus maillardi Michelin, 1862 accepted as Coelopleurus maillardi (Michelin, 1862) (source of synonymy)
Kionocidaris striata Mortensen, 1932 (basis of record)
Lamprechinus nitidus Döderlein, 1905 accepted as Trigonocidaris nitidus (Döderlein, 1905) (basis of record)
Leiocidaris pistillaris (Lamarck, 1816) accepted as Prionocidaris pistillaris (Lamarck, 1816) (source of synonymy)
Lovenia elongata (Gray, 1845) (additional source)
Orechinus monolini (A. Agassiz, 1879) accepted as Trigonocidaris monolini A. Agassiz, 1879 (basis of record)
Palaeolampas crassa Bell, 1880 accepted as Echinolampas crassa (Bell, 1880) (source of synonymy)
Paracentrotus agulhensis Döderlein, 1905 accepted as Polyechinus agulhensis (Döderlein, 1905) (source of synonymy)
Parechinus angulosus (Leske, 1778) (basis of record)
Phormosoma petersii A. Agassiz, 1880 accepted as Hygrosoma petersii (A. Agassiz, 1880) (source of synonymy)
Polyechinus agulhensis (Döderlein, 1905) (basis of record)
Pourtalesia alcocki Koehler, 1914 (additional source)
Prionocidaris pistillaris (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Salenia phoinissa A. Agassiz & H.L. Clark, 1908 accepted as Bathysalenia phoinissa (A. Agassiz & H.L. Clark, 1908) (basis of record)
Salmacis erythracis H.L. Clark, 1912 accepted as Salmaciella erythracis (H.L. Clark, 1912) (source of synonymy)
Salmacis erythracis H.L. Clark, 1912 accepted as Salmaciella erythracis (H.L. Clark, 1912) (basis of record)
Schizaster capensis Studer, 1880 accepted as Brisaster capensis (Studer, 1880) (source of synonymy)
Spatangus capensis Döderlein, 1905 (basis of record)
Spatangus elongata Gray, 1845 accepted as Spatangus elongatus Gray, 1845 accepted as Lovenia elongata (Gray, 1845) (source of synonymy)
Sperosoma biseriatum Döderlein, 1901 (basis of record)
Stereocidaris Pomel, 1883 (additional source)
Stereocidaris capensis Döderlein, 1901 (additional source)
Stereocidaris excavata Mortensen, 1932 (basis of record)
Stereocidaris squamosa Mortensen, 1928 (additional source)
Stomopneustes variolaris (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Temnopleurus reevesi (Gray, 1855) accepted as Temnopleurus reevesii (Gray, 1855) (additional source)
Toreumatica reevesi Gray, 1855 accepted as Temnopleurus reevesii (Gray, 1855) (source of synonymy)
Toxopneustes pileolus (Lamarck, 1816) (additional source)
Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus, 1758) (additional source)
Tropholampas loveni (Studer, 1880) (basis of record)
Urechinus naresianus A. Agassiz, 1879 (additional source)
Agulhas Bank for Coelopleurus interruptus Döderlein, 1910 
Agulhas Bank for Salenia phoinissa A. Agassiz & H.L. Clark, 1908 
Australian Exclusive Economic Zone for Echinus variolaris Lamarck, 1816 
Cape of Good Hope for Brisaster capensis (Studer, 1880) 
Cape of Good Hope for Tropholampas loveni (Studer, 1880) 
Cape Point for Caenopedina capensis H.L. Clark, 1923 
Cape Seal for Echinus gilchristi Bell, 1904 
Durban for Chaetodiadema africanum H.L. Clark, 1925 
Durban for Clypeaster eurychorius H.L. Clark, 1925 
Durban for Eurypatagus parvituberculatus (H.L. Clark, 1924) 
Durban for Kionocidaris striata Mortensen, 1932 
East London for Aspidodiadema africanum Mortensen, 1939 
East London for Stereocidaris excavata Mortensen, 1932 
False Bay (South Shetland Islands) for Brissopsis lyrifera capensis Mortensen, 1907 
Kenya for Sperosoma biseriatum Döderlein, 1901 
Kenyan Exclusive Economic Zone for Sperosoma biseriatum Döderlein, 1901 
Kermadec Islands for Orechinus monolini (A. Agassiz, 1879) 
Knysna for Lamprechinus nitidus Döderlein, 1905 
Knysna for Polyechinus agulhensis (Döderlein, 1905) 
Knysna for Stereocidaris capensis Döderlein, 1901 
Mauritius for Diadema savignyi (Audouin, 1809) 
Mauritius for Echinometra mathaei (Blainville, 1825) 
Mauritius for Eucidaris metularia (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mauritius for Prionocidaris pistillaris (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mauritius for Toxopneustes pileolus (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mozambique for Astropyga radiata (Leske, 1778) 
Mozambique for Coelopleurus maillardi (Michelin, 1862) 
Mozambique for Diadema savignyi (Audouin, 1809) 
Mozambique for Diadema setosum (Leske, 1778) 
Mozambique for Echinodiscus auritus Leske, 1778 
Mozambique for Echinodiscus bisperforatus Leske, 1778 
Mozambique for Echinometra mathaei (Blainville, 1825) 
Mozambique for Echinothrix calamaris (Pallas, 1774) 
Mozambique for Eucidaris metularia (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mozambique for Lovenia elongata (Gray, 1845) 
Mozambique for Prionocidaris pistillaris (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mozambique for Salmaciella dussumieri erythracis (H.L. Clark, 1912) 
Mozambique for Salmacis bicolor L. Agassiz in L. Agassiz & Desor, 1846 
Mozambique for Stomopneustes variolaris (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mozambique for Temnopleurus toreumaticus (Leske, 1778) 
Mozambique for Toxopneustes pileolus (Lamarck, 1816) 
Mozambique for Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Natal for Laganum fudsiyama africanum Mortensen, 1948 
Northern Red Sea Region for Echinocyamus elegans Mazzetti, 1893 
Reunion for Coelopleurus maillardi (Michelin, 1862) 
Réunion Exclusive Economic Zone for Coelopleurus maillardi (Michelin, 1862) 
Saya de Malha for Stereocidaris squamosa Mortensen, 1928 
Simon's Bay for Spatangus capensis Döderlein, 1905 
South Africa (country) for Acanthocidaris maculicollis (de Meijere, 1904)  (doubtful)
South Africa (country) for Araeosoma paucispinum H.L. Clark, 1925 
South Africa (country) for Aspidodiadema africanum Mortensen, 1939 
South Africa (country) for Astropyga radiata (Leske, 1778) 
South Africa (country) for Brisaster capensis (Studer, 1880) 
South Africa (country) for Brissopsis lyrifera capensis Mortensen, 1907 
South Africa (country) for Caenopedina capensis H.L. Clark, 1923 
South Africa (country) for Chaetodiadema africanum H.L. Clark, 1925 
South Africa (country) for Clypeaster eurychorius H.L. Clark, 1925 
South Africa (country) for Clypeaster rarispinus de Meijere, 1903 
South Africa (country) for Coelopleurus interruptus Döderlein, 1910 
South Africa (country) for Coelopleurus maillardi (Michelin, 1862) 
South Africa (country) for Dermechinus horridus (A. Agassiz, 1879) 
South Africa (country) for Diadema savignyi (Audouin, 1809) 
South Africa (country) for Echinocardium capense Mortensen, 1907 
South Africa (country) for Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) 
South Africa (country) for Echinocyamus elegans Mazzetti, 1893 
South Africa (country) for Echinodiscus bisperforatus Leske, 1778 
South Africa (country) for Echinolampas crassa (Bell, 1880) 
South Africa (country) for Echinometra mathaei (Blainville, 1825) 
South Africa (country) for Echinostrephus molaris (Blainville, 1825) 
South Africa (country) for Echinothrix calamaris (Pallas, 1774) 
South Africa (country) for Echinus gilchristi Bell, 1904 
South Africa (country) for Eurypatagus parvituberculatus (H.L. Clark, 1924) 
South Africa (country) for Hygrosoma petersi (A. Agassiz, 1880) 
South Africa (country) for Keraiaphorus maillardi Michelin, 1862 
South Africa (country) for Kionocidaris striata Mortensen, 1932 
South Africa (country) for Laganum fudsiyama africanum Mortensen, 1948 
South Africa (country) for Orechinus monolini (A. Agassiz, 1879) 
South Africa (country) for Parechinus angulosus (Leske, 1778) 
South Africa (country) for Phormosoma bursarium A. Agassiz, 1881 
South Africa (country) for Phormosoma placenta africana Mortensen, 1934 
South Africa (country) for Pourtalesia alcocki Koehler, 1914 
South Africa (country) for Prionocidaris pistillaris (Lamarck, 1816) 
South Africa (country) for Salenia phoinissa A. Agassiz & H.L. Clark, 1908 
South Africa (country) for Salmaciella dussumieri erythracis (H.L. Clark, 1912) 
South Africa (country) for Salmacis bicolor L. Agassiz in L. Agassiz & Desor, 1846 
South Africa (country) for Schizaster lacunosus (Linnaeus, 1758) 
South Africa (country) for Spatagobrissus mirabilis H.L. Clark, 1923 
South Africa (country) for Spatangus capensis Döderlein, 1905 
South Africa (country) for Sperosoma biseriatum Döderlein, 1901 
South Africa (country) for Stereocidaris capensis Döderlein, 1901 
South Africa (country) for Stereocidaris excavata Mortensen, 1932 
South Africa (country) for Stereocidaris squamosa Mortensen, 1928 
South Africa (country) for Stomopneustes variolaris (Lamarck, 1816) 
South Africa (country) for Temnopleurus reevesi (Gray, 1855) 
South Africa (country) for Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus, 1758) 
South Africa (country) for Tropholampas loveni (Studer, 1880) 
Tanzania for Salmaciella dussumieri erythracis (H.L. Clark, 1912) 
United States for Hygrosoma petersi (A. Agassiz, 1880) 
Western Cape for Echinocardium capense Mortensen, 1907 
Zanzibar for Salmaciella dussumieri erythracis (H.L. Clark, 1912) 
Unknown type, locality Crozet Islands, identified as Urechinus naresianus A. Agassiz, 1879
Unknown type, locality Gulf of Oman, identified as Pourtalesia alcocki Koehler, 1914
 Biology

Sexually dimrophic species, epizoic on cake urchins Echinodiscus bisperforatus and E. auritus [details]

 Description

Description: disc scales with scattered pointed spinelets; single thick oral papilla, no infradental papilla; ... [details]

 Description

Clark & Courtman-Stock record the species as observed from South Africa, without further details. [details]

 Description

South african Atlantic species [details]

 Distribution

General distribution: temperate, discontinuous (Pacific and Atlantic Oceans), depth range 62-2963 m. (Rowe & Gates, ... [details]

 Distribution

Distribution: South Africa, not known more precisely. [details]

 Distribution

From the Philippines in Lyman (1874). [details]

 Distribution

Distribution: also atlantic coast of S Africa (Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976). [details]

 Distribution

Also reported from Morocco and Ivory coast (Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in East Indies, Philippine and South Pacific Is. (Clark & Rowe, 1971); Australia (Rowe & Gates, ... [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in Gilbert Islands (Clark, 1954). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in Saipan (Clark, 1954). [details]

 Distribution

Also distributed in Maldives, Andamans, Lesser Sunda Island and southern Japan in depths from about 400-2800 m. ... [details]

 Distribution

Tropical Indo-Pacific in Kalk (1958). [details]

 Distribution

Distribution: occurs ao on the Atlantic Coast of South Africa (Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976 [554]) [details]

 Ecology

benthic, continental shelf, continental slope. General distribution: temperate, South Africa, west Pacific Ocean, ... [details]

 Ecology

Ecology: benthic, inshore, continental shelf, deposit feeder. General distribution: temperate, discontinuous (west ... [details]

 Ecology

Ecology: benthic, continental shelf, continental slope, abyssal. General distribution: temperate, circumglobal ... [details]

 Ecology

Ecology: benthic, continental slope. Depth range 318-2300 m. (Rowe & Gates, 1995). Also previously recorded in ... [details]

 Ecology

Ecology: benthic, continental slope. General distribution: temperate, discontinuous, South Africa, New Zealand, ... [details]

 Holotype

Holotype South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa.Type locality: off East London, South Africa, 375m (Rowe & ... [details]

 Holotype

Holotype whereabouts undetermined. Type locality: Red Sea, in Lyman (1865) (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Holotype

Holotype in Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA) No. 2278; paratypes in ... [details]

 Holotype

Holotype South African Museum, Cape Town (South Africa) A.6445. Type locality: NW of Lion's Head, Cape Town, South ... [details]

 Remark

Type species: Tristan da Cunha, 200 m. (Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976). [details]

 Remark

Types species: Spatangus pusillus Leske, 1778 (=Echinus cordatus Pennant, 1777) by subsequent designation (Rowe & ... [details]

 Remark

Type data: status and whereabouts undetermined. Type locality: Unknown (Britain) (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Type data: syntypes whereabouts undetermined. Type locality: unknown (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Original combination [details]

 Remark

Original combination [details]

 Remark

Type specie of the genus Keraiophorus Michelin, 1862 (=Coelopleurus L. Agassiz, 1840 (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Syntypes undetermied. Type locality: Norway in Clark & Courtman-Stock (1976), but unknown in Rowe & Gates (1995). [details]

 Remark

Syntypes ?Zoologisches Museum, Göttingen (Germany) (3 specimens).Type locality: Amboina, Indonesia (Rowe & Gates, ... [details]

 Remark

Syntypes Natural History Museum, London (England) 1882.12.23.444. Type locality: japan (35°11'N 139°28'E) (Rowe & ... [details]

 Remark

Type species: Ophiogymna elegans Ljungman, 1866 by monotypy (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Lectotype Museum fürNnaturkunde an der Universität Humbolt zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany) 5429, paralectotype Museum ... [details]

 Remark

Lectotype Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands, paralectotypes Universitait van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, ... [details]

 Remark

Type species: Ophiacantha vipellis Lyman, 1883 by original designation (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Syntypes (probable) Natural History Museum, London (england). Type locality: off the coast of Ireland (Rowe & ... [details]

 Remark

Type specie of the genus Cryptopelta H.L. Clark, 1909 (Rowe & Gates, 1995). [details]

 Remark

Syntypes (7 specimens) ?Universitait van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Type locality: east of Sailus Besar, ... [details]

 Remark

Also recorded from 'Coin Peros' by Bell (1909) - locality can't be traced. Described by Müller & Troschel ... [details]

 Remark

Type species: Cidaris cretosa Mantell, 1829 (=Cidaris sceptrifera Mantell, 1822) by subsequent designation in ... [details]

 Spelling

Tropriometra in Kalk (1958). [details]

 Status

Lyman (1882) intended this to be a synonym of Ophioderma tonagan Lütken, 1872, but assigned his own name to it as ... [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 Synonymy

Original description [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original description [details]

 synonymy

Original description [details]

 Synonymy

Original description [details]

 Synonymy

Original description [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 Synonymy

Treated as synonym of Astrothorax papillata (H.L. Clark, 1923) in Clark & Courtman-Stock (1976). [details]

 synonymy

Original description [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 Synonymy

Original description [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination for Henricia reticulata; H. reticulata is junior homonym of H. reticulata of Hayashi, 1940. [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

H. retecta preoccupied by Hayashi 1940 [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

A forma of M. gacialis [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 Synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 Synonymy

In Lyman (1874): Ophiothrix longipeda is a synonym of Ophiothrix propinqua Lyman. But Ophiothrix propinqua is a ... [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 Synonymy

Original description [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]

 synonymy

Original combination and rank [details]

 synonymy

Original combination [details]


Website and databases developed and hosted by VLIZ · Page generated 2018-10-22 GMT · contact: Kroh Andreas