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Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M. (2003). Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review. 41: 47-114.
4179
Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M
2003
Antarctic marine benthic diversity
Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review
41: 47-114
Publication
An unpublished species checklist compiled for background to this paper was used as basis for the Register of Antarctic Marine Species. The paper itself contains no species lists.
Ant'Phipoda Literature database.
Species lists have been compiled for all the major groups of Southern Ocean benthic marine invertebrates, eliminating synonymies where possible and providing a subjective estimate of completeness and reliability for each group. Antarctic marine diversity (pelagic and benthic) is relatively high at the phylum and class level, with the gaps mostly comprising minor, meiofaunal or parasitic groups. Most benthic diversity data come from the continental shelves, with relatively few samples from deeper water. Even for the continental shelves, however, sampling is highly patchy with some areas hardly investigated at all. Over 4100 benthic species have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with the most speciose groups being polychaetes, gastropods and amphipods. Comparison with tropical and temperate regions suggest that decapods, bivalves and teleost fishes are poorly represented in the Southern Ocean benthic marine fauna, whereas pycnogonids, echinoderms and many suspension feeding groups are rich and diverse. Some groups that are currently low in diversity were previously well represented in the Antarctic shallow water marine fauna, notably decapods and many fishes. Other groups have undergone marked radiations in the Southern Ocean, including pycnogonids, amphipods, isopods and teleost fishes; in all cases, however, it is only some lineages that have diversified. This indicates that evolutionary questions concerning the origin, diversification or extinction of the Southern Ocean marine fauna will have no single answer; the evolutionary history of each group appears to reflect a different response to the tectonic, climatic and oceanographic changes to which they have been subject through history. The disposition of southern hemisphere continents makes it difficult to assess whether there is a latitudinal cline in shallow-water marine diversity to mirror that known from the northern hemisphere. Within Antarctica, many species appear to have circumpolar distributions, and the long established biogeographical division into continental Antarctic, Antarctic Peninsula and sub-Antarctic regions have not been challenged by recent sampling. For most groups the frequency distribution of species per genus ratios is typical, though none is well described by the predictions from current evolutionary or null models. Where data are available, size spectra indicate that many Southern Ocean taxa are small, a few spectacular examples of gigantism notwithstanding, and species abundance plots are normal. Knowledge of the Southern Ocean benthic marine fauna has reached a stage where we can now ask powerful evolutionary questions, and the development of new molecular techniques provides the mechanism for answering them
Antarctic
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Acanthopriapulus van der Land, 1970 (basis of record)
Acanthopriapulus horridus (Théel, 1911) (basis of record)
Achelia communis (Bouvier, 1906) (basis of record)
Achelia hoekii (Pfeffer, 1889) (basis of record)
Achelia parvula (Loman, 1923) (basis of record)
Achelia serratipalpis (Bouvier, 1911) (basis of record)
Achelia sufflata Gordon, 1944 (basis of record)
Actinernus elongatus (Hertwig, 1882) (basis of record)
Actinoscyphia plebeia (McMurrich, 1893) (basis of record)
Actinostola crassicornis (Hertwig, 1882) (basis of record)
Adagnesia weddelli Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1994 (basis of record)
Aglaoprimnoa Bayer, 1996 (basis of record)
Aglaoprimnoa stefanii Bayer, 1996 (basis of record)
Agnezia arnaudi (Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1974) (basis of record)
Agnezia biscoei (Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983) (basis of record)
Alloeocarpa incrustans (Herdman, 1886) (basis of record)
Ammothea allopodes Fry & Hedgpeth, 1969 (basis of record)
Ammothea bicorniculata Stiboy-Risch, 1992 (basis of record)
Ammothea calmani Gordon, 1932 (basis of record)
Ammothea carolinensis Leach, 1814 (basis of record)
Ammothea clausi Pfeffer, 1889 (basis of record)
Ammothea gigantea Gordon, 1932 (basis of record)
Ammothea glacialis (Hodgson, 1907) (basis of record)
Ammothea gordonae Child, 1994 (basis of record)
Ammothea longispina Gordon, 1932 (basis of record)
Ammothea meridionalis Hodgson, 1915 (basis of record)
Ammothea minor (Hodgson, 1907) (basis of record)
Ammothea sextarticulata Munilla, 1991 (basis of record)
Ammothea spinosa (Hodgson, 1907) (basis of record)
Ammothea striata (Möbius, 1902) (basis of record)
Ammothea stylirostris Gordon, 1932 (basis of record)
Ammothea tetrapora Gordon, 1932 (basis of record)
Anoplodactylus australis (Hodgson, 1914) (basis of record)
Anthozoa incertae sedis (basis of record)
Aplidium annulatum Sluiter, 1906 (basis of record)
Aplidium bilinguae Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983 (basis of record)
Aplidium cyaneum Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983 (basis of record)
Aplidium falklandicum Millar, 1960 (basis of record)
Aplidium fuegiense (Cunningham, 1871) (basis of record)
Aplidium globosum (Herdman, 1886) (basis of record)
Aplidium imbutum Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983 (basis of record)
Aplidium irregulare (Herdman, 1886) (basis of record)
Aplidium loricatum (Harant & Vernières, 1938) (basis of record)
Aplidium meridianum (Sluiter, 1906) (basis of record)
Aplidium millari Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1994 (basis of record)
Aplidium miripartum Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983 (basis of record)
Aplidium ordinatum (Sluiter, 1906) (basis of record)
Aplidium paessleri (Michaelsen, 1907) (basis of record)
Aplidium radiatum (Sluiter, 1906) (basis of record)
Aplidium recumbens (Herdman, 1886) (basis of record)
Aplidium siderum Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983 (basis of record)
Aplidium stanleyi Millar, 1960 (basis of record)
Aplidium triplex (Sluiter, 1906) accepted as Synoicum triplex (Sluiter, 1906) (basis of record)
Aplidium vanhoeffeni Hartmeyer, 1911 (basis of record)
Aplidium variabile (Herdman, 1886) (basis of record)
Aplidium vastum (Sluiter, 1912) (basis of record)
Armadillogorgia Bayer, 1980 (basis of record)
Armadillogorgia cyathella Bayer, 1980 (basis of record)
Artemidactis Stephenson, 1918 (basis of record)
Artemidactis victrix Stephenson, 1918 (basis of record)
Ascidia challengeri Herdman, 1882 (basis of record)
Ascorhynchus inflatum Stock, 1963 accepted as Ascorhynchus inflatus Stock, 1963 (basis of record)
Aulactinia sulcata (Clubb, 1902) (basis of record)
Australisis Bayer & Stefani, 1987 (basis of record)
Australisis sarmentosa Bayer & Stefani, 1987 (basis of record)
Austrodecus breviceps Gordon, 1938 (basis of record)
Austrodecus calcaricauda Stock, 1957 (basis of record)
Austrodecus crenatum Child, 1994 (basis of record)
Austrodecus curtipes Stock, 1957 (basis of record)
Austrodecus fagei Stock, 1957 (basis of record)
Austrodecus glabrum Stock, 1957 (basis of record)
Austrodecus glaciale Hodgson, 1907 (basis of record)
Austrodecus kelpi Pushkin, 1977 (basis of record)
Austrodecus macrum Child, 1994 (basis of record)
Austrodecus profundum Stock, 1957 (basis of record)
Austropallene Hodgson, 1915 (basis of record)
Austropallene brachyura (Bouvier, 1911) (basis of record)
Austropallene bucera Pushkin, 1993 (basis of record)
Austropallene calmani Gordon, 1944 (basis of record)
Austropallene cornigera (Möbius, 1902) (basis of record)
Austropallene cristata (Bouvier, 1911) (basis of record)
Austropallene gracilipes Gordon, 1944 (basis of record)
Austropallene spinicornis Pushkin, 1993 (basis of record)
Austropallene tcherniai Fage, 1952 (basis of record)
Austropallene tenuicornis Pushkin, 1993 (basis of record)
Austropallene tibicina Calman, 1915 (basis of record)
Austroraptus Hodgson, 1907 (basis of record)
Austroraptus calcaratus Gordon, 1944 (basis of record)
Austroraptus juvenilis Calman, 1915 (basis of record)
Austroraptus polaris Hodgson, 1907 (basis of record)
Austroraptus praecox Calman, 1915 (basis of record)
Austroraptus sicarius Fry & Hedgpeth, 1969 (basis of record)
Balanophyllia (Balanophyllia) chnous Squires, 1962 (basis of record)
Balanophyllia (Balanophyllia) malouinensis Squires, 1961 (basis of record)
Bathypera Michaelsen, 1904 (basis of record)
Bathypera splendens Michaelsen, 1904 (basis of record)
Bathyphellia australis Dunn, 1983 (basis of record)
Bolocera paucicornis Dunn, 1893 (basis of record)
Boltenia hirta Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1977 (basis of record)
Bryozoa (additional source)

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