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Hooper, J.N.A. (2002 [2004]). Family Acarnidae Dendy, 1922. Pp. 412–431. In: Hooper, J.N.A.; Van Soest, R.W.M. (2002 [2004]). Systema Porifera. A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. (2 volumes). Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publ., New York. 1708+XLVIII. ISBN 978-1-4615-0747-5 (eBook electronic version).
404771
Hooper, J.N.A.
2002 [2004]
Family Acarnidae Dendy, 1922. Pp. 412–431. <em>In: </em>Hooper, J.N.A.; Van Soest, R.W.M. (2002 [2004])
Systema Porifera. A Guide to the Classification of Sponges
(2 volumes). Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publ., New York. 1708+XLVIII. ISBN 978-1-4615-0747-5 (eBook electronic version)
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Acarnidae Dendy (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida, Microcionina) contains 37 nominal genera of which 13 are considered here to be valid, and probably several hundreds of species. Acarnids are distributed worldwide, although several genera are predominant in colder temperate waters, and several have very restricted (apparently endemic) geographic ranges. Major morphological characters diagnostic for the family include massive, burrowing, excavating or encrusting growth forms with fistules, as well as non-fistulose genera with digitate, flabellate, massive or encrusting growth forms; ectosomal skeleton with tangentially arranged tylotes with spined bases; choanosomal skeleton reticulate (in massive) or plumose (in encrusting growth forms), with or without echinating spicules; megascleres include styles; and microscleres are palmate isochelae and toxas, sometimes lost or sometimes with other microscleres such as bipocillae, modified anisochelae, microrhabds and raphides.
Systematics, Taxonomy
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2021-04-18 13:57:37Z
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2021-04-19 09:34:44Z
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Acanthacarnus Lévi, 1952 accepted as Acarnus Gray, 1867 (basis of record)
Acarnidae Dendy, 1922 (taxonomy source)
Acarnidae Dendy, 1922 (basis of record)
Acarnus Gray, 1867 (additional source)
Acheliderma Topsent, 1892 (basis of record)
Cornulella Dendy, 1922 (basis of record)
Cornulella lundbecki Dendy, 1922 (basis of record)
Cornulum Carter, 1876 (basis of record)
Damiria Keller, 1891 (basis of record)
Damirina Burton, 1959 accepted as Zyzzya Laubenfels, 1936 (basis of record)
Iophon Gray, 1867 (basis of record)
Iophon hyndmani (Bowerbank, 1858) (basis of record)
Iophon nigricans (Bowerbank, 1858) (basis of record)
Paracornulum Hallmann, 1920 (basis of record)
Zyzzya Laubenfels, 1936 (basis of record)
Zyzzya fuliginosa (Carter, 1879) (additional source)