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WRiMS terminology


Invasiveness Definition with respect to an introduced species
Invasive Spreading geographically, or where scientific evidence of negative impacts on native biodiversity have been recorded
Invasiveness not specified Invasiveness has not been specified or evidence of impact is not clear
Invasiveness uncertain Invasiveness is uncertain and evidence of impact is not clear
Uncertain management Species is being managed to prevent introduction and/or spread
Not invasive Which have not naturalised, not spread, or not shown to have impacts on native biodiversity
Of concern Species that have not displayed any invasiveness in the country or sea area where they have been introduced, but are known to be invasive in their introduced range elsewhere; and whose life stage forms can be dispersed through ballast water and or hull fouling;


Self-explanatory terminology
  • Alien
  • Native
  • Native endemic
  • Native non-endemic
  • Origin uncertain
  • Origin unknown


  • Introducted country and/or sea area
  • Native country and/or native sea area
  • Source country and/or sea area


  • Absent
  • Border intercept
  • Detected in invasion pathway
  • Detected in the wild
  • Eradicated
  • Eradication unconfirmed
  • Established
  • Established and expanding
  • Established and stable
  • Extirpated
  • In captivity/cultivated
  • Introduction unverified
  • Occurrence not specified
  • Present/controlled
  • Recorded in error
  • Reported
  • Sometimes present


  • Adverse habitat modification
  • Alters bio-geochemical/hydrologic cycles
  • Alters trophic interactions
  • Aquatic transport
  • Consumes native species (predator or herbivore)
  • Damage to marine structures or archaeology
  • Genetic impacts: hybridisation and introgression
  • Human health
  • Induces novel behavioural or eco-physiological responses
  • Loss of aquaculture/commercial/recreational harvest or gain
  • Loss of public/tourist amenity
  • Other impact - undefined or uncertain
  • Outcompetes native species for resources and/or space
  • Pathogen/parasite or carrier of a pathogen/parasite
  • Water abstraction or nuisance fouling

Pathways and vectors

  • Aquaculture: accidental
  • Traits:Pathways/vector
  • Bio-control:
    • accidental translocation with deliberate bio-control release
    • deliberate translocation as a bio-control agent
  • Canals: natural range expansion through man-made canals
  • Debris: transport of species on human generated debris
  • Fisheries:
    • accidental as bait
    • accidental with deliberate translocations of fish or shellfish
    • accidental with fishery products, packing or substrate
    • deliberate translocations of fish or shellfish to establish or support fishery
  • Individual release:
    • accidental release by individuals
    • deliberate release by individuals
  • Natural dispersal
  • Pathway/vector:
    • Other
    • Unknown
  • Plant introductions:
    • accidental with deliberate plant translocations
    • deliberate translocation of plant species
    • Recreational equipment: accidental with recreational equipment
    • Scientific research:
      • accidental release with research activities
      • deliberate release with research activities
    • Seaplanes: accidental as attached or free-living fouling organisms
    • Ships:
      • accidental as attached or free-living fouling organisms
      • accidental associated with cargo
      • accidental with ballast water, sea water systems, live wells or other deck basins
      • accidental with solid ballast
      • general