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CaRMS taxon details

Terebellidae Johnston, 1846

982  (

Subfamily Terebellinae Johnston, 1846
  » Tribe Lanicini Holthe, 1986
    » Genus Axionice Malmgren, 1866
    » Genus Loimia Malmgren, 1866
    » Genus Pista Malmgren, 1866
  » Genus Nicolea Malmgren, 1866
  » Tribe Polycirrini Malmgren, 1866
    » Genus Amaeana Hartman, 1959
    » Genus Enoplobranchus Verrill, 1879
    » Genus Lysilla Malmgren, 1866
    » Genus Polycirrus Grube, 1850
  » Tribe Procleini Holthe, 1986
    » Genus Laphania Malmgren, 1866
    » Genus Proclea Saint-Joseph, 1894
  » Tribe Terebellini Johnston, 1846
    » Genus Amphitrite Müller, 1771
    » Genus Artacama Malmgren, 1866
    » Genus Lanassa Malmgren, 1866
    » Genus Leaena Malmgren, 1866
    » Genus Neoamphitrite Hessle, 1917
    » Genus Terebella Linnaeus, 1767
  » Tribe Artacamini (nomen dubium, disused)
Subfamily Thelepodinae Hessle, 1917
  » Genus Streblosoma M. Sars in G.O. Sars, 1872
  » Genus Thelepus Leuckart, 1849
  » Tribe Thelepini (nomen dubium, rank currently unused)

Subfamily Amphitritinae Malmgren, 1866 accepted as Terebellinae Johnston, 1846 (principle of coordination)
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
recent + fossil
Johnston, George 1846. An index to the British Annelides [sic]. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 1, 16 (supplement to vol 16): 433-462. Plate 2. , available online at
page(s): 447 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 
Homonymy Senior to replaced name Terebellidae Adams & Adams, 1854, in Mollusca: Gastropoda, accepted as Seraphsidae, based on...  
Homonymy Senior to replaced name Terebellidae Adams & Adams, 1854, in Mollusca: Gastropoda, accepted as Seraphsidae, based on Terebellum Röding, 1798. [details]
Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2021). World Polychaeta Database. Terebellidae Johnston, 1846. Accessed through: Nozères, C., Kennedy, M.K. (Eds.) (2021) Canadian Register of Marine Species at: on 2021-06-16
Nozères, C., Kennedy, M.K. (Eds.) (2021). Canadian Register of Marine Species. Terebellidae Johnston, 1846. Accessed at: on 2021-06-16
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
2008-03-26 11:36:43Z
2010-03-03 00:50:30Z
2011-09-18 23:08:58Z
2011-10-19 20:56:35Z
2013-05-06 05:20:56Z

original description Johnston, George 1846. An index to the British Annelides [sic]. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 1, 16 (supplement to vol 16): 433-462. Plate 2. , available online at
page(s): 447 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

taxonomy source Stiller, Josefin; Tilic, Ekin; Rousset, Vincent; Pleijel, Fredrick; Rouse, Greg W. (2020). Spaghetti to a tree: A robust phylogeny for Terebelliformia (Annelida) based on transcriptomes, molecular and morphological Data. <em>Biology.</em> 9(4): 73 [29 pp. + supplementary material]., available online at [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

context source (Bermuda) Sterrer, W. (1986). Marine fauna and flora of Bermuda: a systematic guide to the identification of marine organisms. Wiley-Interscience Publication. Wiley, 742 pp [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

basis of record Fauchald, K. (1977). The polychaete worms, definitions and keys to the orders, families and genera. <em>Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County: Los Angeles, CA (USA), Science Series.</em> 28:1-188., available online at [details]   

additional source Grube, Adolf Eduard. (1850). Die Familien der Anneliden. <em>Archiv für Naturgeschichte, Berlin.</em> 16(1): 249-364., available online at
page(s): 325 [details]   

additional source Hessle, Christian. (1917). Zur Kenntnis der terebellomorphen Polychaeten. <em>Zoologiska bidrag från Uppsala.</em> 5: 39-258, plates I-V., available online at [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Hilbig, Brigitte 2000. Family Terebellidae Grube, 1851. pages 231-294. IN: Blake, James A.; Hilbig, Brigitte; and Scott, Paul Valentich. Taxonomic Atlas of the Benthic Fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and Western Santa Barbara Channel. 7 - The Annelida Part 4. Polychaeta: Fabelligeridae to Sternaspidae. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History. Santa Barbara [details]   

additional source Holthe, T. (1986). Evolution, systematics, and distribution of the Polychaeta Terebellomorpha, with a catalogue of the taxa and a bibliography. <em>Gunneria.</em> 55: 1-236., available online at [details]   

additional source Malmgren, A.J. (1867). Annulata Polychaeta Spetsbergiæ, Grœnlandiæ, Islandiæ et Scandinaviæ. Hactenus Cognita. Ex Officina Frenckelliana, Helsingforslæ. 127 pp. & XIV plates., available online at
page(s): 107 [details]   

additional source McHugh, Damhnait 1995. Phylogenetic analysis of the Amphitritinae (Polychaeta: Terebellidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, London 114: 405-429. [details]   

additional source Glasby, Christopher J., Hutchings, Patricia A. and Hall, Kathryn. (2004). Assessment of monophyly and taxon affinities within the polychaete clade Terebelliformia (Terebellida). <em>Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.</em> 84(5): 961-971., available online at [details]   

additional source Nogueira, João Miguel de Matos; Hutchings, Patricia A.; Fukuda, Marcelo Veronesi. (2010). Morphology of terebelliform polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta: Terebelliformia), with a focus on Terebellidae. <em>Zootaxa.</em> 2460: 1-185., available online at [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Garraffoni, A. R. S.; Lana, P. C. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships within the Terebellidae (Polychaeta : Terebellida) based on morphological characters. Invertebrate Systematics 22(6): 605-626 [details]   

additional source Nogueira, João Miguel de Matos; Fitzhugh, Kirk; Hutchings, Pat. 2013. The continuing challenge of phylogenetic relationships in Terebelliformia (Annelida : Polychaeta). Invertebrate Systematics 27(2): 186-238, available online at [details]   

identification resource Jirkov, I. A. and Leontovitch, M. K. (2013). Identification keys for Terebellomorpha (Polychaeta) of the eastern Atlantic and the North Polar basin. Invertebrate Zoology [aka Zoologiya Bespozvonochnykh]. 10 (2): 217 - 243., available online at [details]   
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 

From editor or global species database
Authority Johnston (1846:447) appears to be the first to use Terebellidae as a family name. Hessle (1917:43) recognised this, stating that "Johnston stellte (1845) die Familie Terebellidae auf", whereas Grube (1850) was the first to recognise the "Terebellomorphen" group of families. Hartman Catalogue (1959:495) preferred Malmgren (1867) over the commonly cited Grube (1850), presumably because Grube (with use of Terebellacea) did not use a correctly latinised form, although he wrote a diagnosis of the family. Johnston (1846) is an earlier usage than Grube. Unlike Grube, he gave no diagnosis, but this is not required under ICZN Art.11.7. [details]

Classification Only subfamilies Terebellinae, and Thelepodinae are in use following the molecular analysis of Stiller et al. (2020). Polycirrinae, which was raised to a family by Nogueira et al (2013), is reduced to tribe Polycirrini within Terebellinae. See the additional sources for the history of higher classification within Terebellidae. Up to four subfamilies (with some names varying) have been used, and also some taxa have been placed in tribes, notably by Holthe (1986), some of which have been used by Stiller et al (2020). Subfamilies include Terebellinae, commonly in literature as Amphitritinae Malmgren, 1867, Artacaminae Malmgren, 1867, Thelepodinae Hessle, 1917 (was Thelepinae), and Polycirrinae Malmgren 1867, but their separation and extent have not been stable. Note that Amphitritinae is disused in favour of Terebellinae, and that Thelepinae was emended to Thelepodinae, but that for decades both Amphitritinae and Thelepinae were the accepted names in use, so there are many works where those names are in the title. Artacaminae is not currently used, as Artacama is included in Terebellinae. [details]

Classification Classification of Terebellidae is now based on Stiller et al (2020). These authors did not find support from molecular data for splitting terebellid clades as three families Polycirridae + Thelepodidae + Telothelepodidae suggested by Nogueira et al (2013). Within Terebellidae Stiller et al (2020) placed Polycirrinae reduced to a tribe within subfamily Terebellinae, and placed Thelepodidae back to subfamily as previously long used, with Telothelepodidae Nogueira et al, 2013 as its synonym.

Earlier Nogueira, Fitzhugh & Hutchings (2013) had proposed a re-organisation of Terebellidae, raising all the subfamilies to family-level, based on a morphology-based cladistic study, rather than re-including Trichobranchidae in Terebellidae. This rank inflation was not accepted in WoRMS. Although they did not formally assign the genera other than type genera, they attempted to include all genera practicable in their analysis (some were not), and their proposal appears to have been as follows:
* Terebellidae (was Terebellinae): Terebella, (also Amphitrite, Amphitritides, Arranooba, Artacama, Articulatia, Axionice, Baffinia, Betapista, Eupolymnia, Eupistella, Hadrachaeta, Hutchingsiella, Lanassa, Lanice, Lanicides, Lanicola, Laphania, Leaena, Loimia, Longicarpus, Morgana, Naneva, Neoamphitrite, Neoleprea, Nicolea, Paramaphitrite, Paraxionice, Phisidia, Pista, Pistella, Proclea, Pseudoproclea, Ramex, Reteterebella, Scionella, Scionides, Spinosphaera, Stschapovella, Thelepides, & Tyira).
* Polycirridae (was Polycirrinae): Polycirrus (also Amaeana, Biremis, Enoplobranchus, Hauchiella, & Lysilla)
* Thelepodidae (was Thelepodinae): Thelepus (also Euthelepus, Pseudostreblosoma, Pseudothelepus (note it is unstated if this is the species under the homonym Pseudothelepus Hutchings 1997 or the valid Pseudothelepus Augener 1918, or both) & Streblosoma).
* Telothelepodidae (new family): Telothelepus (also Decathelepus, Glossothelepus, Parthelepus, & Rhinothelepus)
The authors did not provide a key to enable identification of the taxa belonging to their updated names.

Homonymy Senior to replaced name Terebellidae Adams & Adams, 1854, in Mollusca: Gastropoda, accepted as Seraphsidae, based on Terebellum Röding, 1798. [details]
Japanese フサゴカイ科  [details]
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