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WoRMS taxon details

Molgula Forbes, 1848

103509  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:103509)

accepted
Genus
Anurella Lacaze-Duthiers, 1877 · unaccepted (Synonym)
Ascopera Herdman, 1881 · unaccepted (Synonym)
Astropera Pizon, 1898 · unaccepted (Synonym)
Caesira Fleming, 1822 · unaccepted (Synonym)
Cystingia MacLeay, 1825 · unaccepted (Synonym)
Eugyriopsis Roule, 1885 · unaccepted (Synonym)
Euritteria Huntsman, 1922 · unaccepted (Synonym)
Gymnocystis Giard, 1872 · unaccepted (Synonym)
Lithonephria Giard, 1872 · unaccepted (Literature misspelling)
Lithonephrya Giard, 1872 · unaccepted (Synonym)
Meristocarpus Pizon, 1899 · unaccepted (Synonym)
Mogula Kirkpatrick, 1905 · unaccepted (spelling mistake)
Molgulidium Seeliger, 1907 · unaccepted (Synonym)
Molgulina Hartmeyer, 1914 · unaccepted (Synonym)
Pera Stimpson, 1852 · unaccepted (Synonym)
Syphonotethis Gervais, 1840 · unaccepted (Synonym)
Xenomolgula Ärnbäck, 1931 · unaccepted (Synonym)

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  1. Species Molgula aidae Oka, 1914
  2. Species Molgula amesophleba (Codreanu & Mack-Fira, 1956)
  3. Species Molgula antiborealis Millar, 1967
  4. Species Molgula appendiculata Heller, 1877
  5. Species Molgula arenata Stimpson, 1852
  6. Species Molgula azorensis Monniot C., 1971
  7. Species Molgula bacca (Herdman, 1910)
  8. Species Molgula bathybia (Hartmeyer, 1912)
  9. Species Molgula beringense Sanamyan & Sanamyan, 2007
  10. Species Molgula bisinus Monniot C., 1989
  11. Species Molgula bleizi (Lacaze-Duthiers, 1877)
  12. Species Molgula bourbonis Monniot C., 1994
  13. Species Molgula bouvetensis (Michaelsen, 1904)
  14. Species Molgula braziliensis Millar, 1958
  15. Species Molgula brieni Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1976
  16. Species Molgula calvata Sluiter, 1904
  17. Species Molgula caminae Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1988
  18. Species Molgula celata (Michaelsen, 1914)
  19. Species Molgula celebensis Millar, 1975
  20. Species Molgula celtica Monniot C., 1970
  21. Species Molgula citrina Alder & Hancock, 1848
  22. Species Molgula coactilis Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1977
  23. Species Molgula complanata Alder & Hancock, 1870
  24. Species Molgula conchata Sluiter, 1898
  25. Species Molgula contorta Sluiter, 1898
  26. Species Molgula cooperi (Huntsman, 1912)
  27. Species Molgula crinita Sluiter, 1904
  28. Species Molgula crustosa Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1988
  29. Species Molgula cryptica Millar, 1962
  30. Species Molgula cynthiaeformis Hartmeyer, 1903
  31. Species Molgula davidi Monniot C., 1972
  32. Species Molgula delicata Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1991
  33. Species Molgula dextrocarpa Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1974
  34. Species Molgula diaguita Monniot C. & Andrade, 1983
  35. Species Molgula dicosta Millar, 1988
  36. Species Molgula dione (Savigny, 1816)
  37. Species Molgula diversa Kott, 1972
  38. Species Molgula dolichentera Millar, 1960
  39. Species Molgula ellistoni Kott, 1972
  40. Species Molgula elva Kott, 2008
  41. Species Molgula enodis (Sluiter, 1912)
  42. Species Molgula eobia Redikorzev, 1941
  43. Species Molgula estadosi Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983
  44. Species Molgula eugyroides Traustedt, 1883
  45. Species Molgula euplicata Herdman, 1923
  46. Species Molgula euprocta (Drasche, 1884)
  47. Species Molgula falsensis Millar, 1955
  48. Species Molgula ficus (Macdonald, 1859)
  49. Species Molgula flagrifera Sluiter, 1904
  50. Species Molgula fortuita Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1984
  51. Species Molgula georgiana Michaelsen, 1922
  52. Species Molgula griffithsii (MacLeay, 1825)
  53. Species Molgula habanensis Van Name, 1945
  54. Species Molgula hartmeyeri Oka, 1914
  55. Species Molgula helleri Drasche, 1884
  56. Species Molgula herdmani Brewin, 1958
  57. Species Molgula herdmanina Monniot & Dettai, 2015
  58. Species Molgula hirta Monniot F., 1965
  59. Species Molgula hodgsoni Herdman, 1910
  60. Species Molgula hozawai Oka, 1932
  61. Species Molgula impura Heller, 1877
  62. Species Molgula incidata Kott, 1985
  63. Species Molgula japonica Hartmeyer, 1906
  64. Species Molgula karubari Monniot F. & Monniot C., 2003
  65. Species Molgula kerguelenensis Kott, 1954
  66. Species Molgula kiaeri Hartmeyer, 1901
  67. Species Molgula kolaensis Ärnbäck-Christie-Linde, 1928
  68. Species Molgula kophameli Michaelsen, 1900
  69. Species Molgula lapidifera Redikorzev, 1941
  70. Species Molgula longipedata Sluiter, 1904
  71. Species Molgula longitubis Monniot C., 2002
  72. Species Molgula longivascula Millar, 1982
  73. Species Molgula lutulenta Herdman, 1923
  74. Species Molgula macquariensis Kott, 1954
  75. Species Molgula malvinensis Ärnbäck, 1938
  76. Species Molgula manhattensis (De Kay, 1843)
  77. Species Molgula marioni Millar, 1960
  78. Species Molgula millari Kott, 1971
  79. Species Molgula mira (Ärnbäck, 1931)
  80. Species Molgula mollis Herdman, 1899
  81. Species Molgula monodi Peres, 1949
  82. Species Molgula mortenseni (Michaelsen, 1922)
  83. Species Molgula napiformis Lambert, 1993
  84. Species Molgula novaeselandiae (Michaelsen, 1912)
  85. Species Molgula occidentalis Traustedt, 1883
  86. Species Molgula occulta Kupffer, 1875
  87. Species Molgula oculata Forbes, 1848
  88. Species Molgula oligostriata Tokioka, 1949
  89. Species Molgula oregonia Ritter, 1913
  90. Species Molgula pacifica (Huntsman, 1912)
  91. Species Molgula pedunculata (Herdman, 1881)
  92. Species Molgula phytophila Monniot C., 1970
  93. Species Molgula pigafettae Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983
  94. Species Molgula pila Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1985
  95. Species Molgula plana Monniot C., 1971
  96. Species Molgula platana Van Name, 1945
  97. Species Molgula platei Hartmeyer, 1914
  98. Species Molgula platybranchia Monniot C., 1970
  99. Species Molgula primitiva Redikorzev, 1941
  100. Species Molgula provisionalis Van Name, 1945
  101. Species Molgula pugetiensis Herdman, 1898
  102. Species Molgula pulchra Michaelsen, 1900
  103. Species Molgula pumila Monniot F. & Monniot C., 1976
  104. Species Molgula pyriformis Herdman, 1881
  105. Species Molgula redikorzevi Oka, 1914
  106. Species Molgula regularis Ritter, 1907
  107. Species Molgula retortiformis Verrill, 1871
  108. Species Molgula rheophila (Pérès, 1956)
  109. Species Molgula riddlei Monniot F., 2011
  110. Species Molgula ridgewayi (Herdman, 1906)
  111. Species Molgula rima Kott, 1972
  112. Species Molgula robini Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983
  113. Species Molgula robusta (Van Name, 1912)
  114. Species Molgula romeri Hartmeyer, 1903
  115. Species Molgula rotunda Oka, 1914
  116. Species Molgula roulei Monniot C., 1969
  117. Species Molgula sabulosa (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834)
  118. Species Molgula salvadori Monniot C., 1970
  119. Species Molgula satyrus Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1993
  120. Species Molgula scutata Millar, 1955
  121. Species Molgula setigera Ärnbäck, 1938
  122. Species Molgula shimodensis Nishikawa, 1982
  123. Species Molgula simplex Alder & Hancock, 1870
  124. Species Molgula siphonalis Kiaer, 1896
  125. Species Molgula siphonata Alder, 1850
  126. Species Molgula sluiteri (Michaelsen, 1922)
  127. Species Molgula socialis Alder, 1863
  128. Species Molgula solenata (Lacaze-Duthiers, 1877)
  129. Species Molgula somaliensis Millar, 1988
  130. Species Molgula sphaera Kott, 1972
  131. Species Molgula spiralis Kott, 1954
  132. Species Molgula susana Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1976
  133. Species Molgula tagi Michaelsen, 1923
  134. Species Molgula taprobane Herdman, 1906
  135. Species Molgula tectiformis Nishikawa, 1991
  136. Species Molgula tethys Monniot F. & Monniot C., 1974
  137. Species Molgula topata Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1987
  138. Species Molgula tubifera (Örsted, 1844)
  139. Species Molgula tzetlini Sanamyan, 1993
  140. Species Molgula undulata (Tokioka, 1949)
  141. Species Molgula vara Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1979
  142. Species Molgula variazizi Monniot C., 1978
  143. Species Molgula verrilli (Van Name, 1912)
  144. Species Molgula verrucifera Ritter & Forsyth, 1917
  145. Species Molgula xenophora Oka, 1914
  146. Species Molgula africana Sluiter, 1915 accepted as Molgula occulta Kupffer, 1875 (original combination)
  147. Species Molgula amokurae Bovien, 1921 accepted as Molgula enodis (Sluiter, 1912) (original combination)
  148. Species Molgula ampulloides (Beneden, 1846) accepted as Molgula manhattensis (De Kay, 1843) (new combination)
  149. Species Molgula angulata Ärnbäck, 1938 accepted as Molgula hodgsoni Herdman, 1910 (original combination)
  150. Species Molgula arctica Kiaer, 1896 accepted as Molgula citrina Alder & Hancock, 1848 (original combination)
  151. Species Molgula arenosa Alder & Hancock, 1848 accepted as Eugyra arenosa (Alder & Hancock, 1848) (original combination)
  152. Species Molgula bancalis Monniot C., 1970 accepted as Molgula georgiana Michaelsen, 1922 (original combination)
  153. Species Molgula batemani Kott, 1952 accepted as Molgula ficus (Macdonald, 1859) (original combination)
  154. Species Molgula bathamae Millar, 1982 accepted as Molgula malvinensis Ärnbäck, 1938 (original combination)
  155. Species Molgula birulai Redikorzev, 1907 accepted as Molgula citrina Alder & Hancock, 1848 (original combination)
  156. Species Molgula borealis Traustedt, 1883 accepted as Molgula siphonalis Kiaer, 1896 (literature misspelling)
  157. Species Molgula boreas Traustedt, 1883 accepted as Molgula siphonalis Kiaer, 1896 (original combination)
  158. Species Molgula caepiformis Herdman & Sorby, 1882 accepted as Molgula manhattensis (De Kay, 1843) (original combination)
  159. Species Molgula camina Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1988 accepted as Molgula caminae Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1988 (misspelling)
  160. Species Molgula carpenteri Herdman, 1886 accepted as Microcosmus glacialis (Sars, 1859) (original combination)
  161. Species Molgula chrystallina (Moeller, 1842) accepted as Molgula griffithsii (MacLeay, 1825) (new combination)
  162. Species Molgula conchilega (Mueller, 1776) accepted as Ascidia conchilega Müller, 1776 (new combination)
  163. Species Molgula concomitans Herdman, 1910 accepted as Molgula hodgsoni Herdman, 1910 (original combination)
  164. Species Molgula confluxa (Sluiter, 1912) accepted as Molgula enodis (Sluiter, 1912) (new combination)
  165. Species Molgula congata Sluiter, 1898 accepted as Molgula conchata Sluiter, 1898 (misspelling)
  166. Species Molgula coreni Traustedt, 1880 accepted as Molgula occulta Kupffer, 1875 (original combination)
  167. Species Molgula crystallina (Moeller, 1842) accepted as Molgula griffithsii (MacLeay, 1825) (literature misspelling)
  168. Species Molgula dentifera Damas, 1904 accepted as Molgula manhattensis (De Kay, 1843) (original combination)
  169. Species Molgula discogona Millar, 1975 accepted as Molgula sphaera Kott, 1972 (original combination)
  170. Species Molgula echinosiphonica Lacaze-Duthiers, 1877 accepted as Molgula citrina Alder & Hancock, 1848 (molecular data )
  171. Species Molgula exigua Kott, 1972 accepted as Pareugyrioides exigua (Kott, 1972) (original combination)
  172. Species Molgula filholi Pizon, 1898 accepted as Paramolgula filholi (Pizon, 1898) (original combination)
  173. Species Molgula forbesi Herdman, 1881 accepted as Molgula ficus (Macdonald, 1859) (original combination)
  174. Species Molgula forbesii Herdman, 1881 accepted as Molgula ficus (Macdonald, 1859) (literature misspelling)
  175. Species Molgula galatheae Millar, 1959 accepted as Pareugyrioides galatheae (Millar, 1959) (original combination)
  176. Species Molgula gigantea (Cunningham, 1871) accepted as Paramolgula gigantea (Cunningham, 1871)
  177. Species Molgula glomerata Pizon, 1898 accepted as Paramolgula gregaria (Lesson, 1830) (original combination)
  178. Species Molgula goddeffroyi Michaelsen, 1908 accepted as Molgula ficus (Macdonald, 1859) (literature misspelling)
  179. Species Molgula godeffroyi Michaelsen, 1908 accepted as Molgula ficus (Macdonald, 1859) (original combination)
  180. Species Molgula graphica Ritter, 1901 accepted as Molgula retortiformis Verrill, 1871 (original combination)
  181. Species Molgula gregaria (Lesson, 1830) accepted as Paramolgula gregaria (Lesson, 1830) (new combination)
  182. Species Molgula griffithsi (MacLeay, 1825) accepted as Molgula griffithsii (MacLeay, 1825) (literature misspelling)
  183. Species Molgula groenlandica Traustedt, 1880 accepted as Molgula retortiformis Verrill, 1871 (original combination)
  184. Species Molgula hannensis Peres, 1949 accepted as Molgula occulta Kupffer, 1875 (original combination)
  185. Species Molgula horrida Herdman, 1881 accepted as Paramolgula gregaria (Lesson, 1830) (original combination)
  186. Species Molgula hupferi Michaelsen, 1908 accepted as Hartmeyeria hupferi (Hartmeyer, 1909) (original combination)
  187. Species Molgula immunda (Hartmeyer, 1909) accepted as Molguloides immunda (Hartmeyer, 1909) (new combination)
  188. Species Molgula interrupta Tokioka, 1953 accepted as Molgula xenophora Oka, 1914 (original combination)
  189. Species Molgula inversa Sluiter, 1900 accepted as Paramolgula filholi (Pizon, 1898) (original combination)
  190. Species Molgula janis Kott, 1952 accepted as Molgula sabulosa (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834) (original combination)
  191. Species Molgula koreni Sumner & Osburn, Cole, 1913 accepted as Molgula robusta (Van Name, 1912) (original combination)
  192. Species Molgula litoralis Verrill, 1871 accepted as Molgula citrina Alder & Hancock, 1848 (literature misspelling)
  193. Species Molgula littoralis Verrill, 1871 accepted as Molgula citrina Alder & Hancock, 1848 (original combination)
  194. Species Molgula longicaulis Herdman, 1910 accepted as Molgula pedunculata (Herdman, 1881) (original combination)
  195. Species Molgula longicollis Wagner, 1885 accepted as Molgula retortiformis Verrill, 1871 (original combination)
  196. Species Molgula lutkeniana Traustedt, 1893 accepted as Molgula manhattensis (De Kay, 1843) (original combination)
  197. Species Molgula macrosiphonica Kupffer, 1872 accepted as Molgula provisionalis Van Name, 1945 (original combination)
  198. Species Molgula malviniensis Ärnbäck, 1938 accepted as Molgula malvinensis Ärnbäck, 1938 (literature misspelling)
  199. Species Molgula martensi (Traustedt, 1885) accepted as Molgula ficus (Macdonald, 1859) (literature misspelling)
  200. Species Molgula martensii Traustedt, 1885 accepted as Molgula ficus (Macdonald, 1859) (original combination)
  201. Species Molgula maxima Sluiter, 1905 accepted as Molgula pedunculata (Herdman, 1881) (original combination)
  202. Species Molgula medusa Kott, 1952 accepted as Molgula calvata Sluiter, 1904 (original combination)
  203. Species Molgula minuta Kott, 1952 accepted as Molgula calvata Sluiter, 1904 (original combination)
  204. Species Molgula mortoni Kesteven, 1909 accepted as Molgula ficus (Macdonald, 1859) (original combination)
  205. Species Molgula nana Kupffer, 1873 accepted as Molgula citrina Alder & Hancock, 1848 (original combination)
  206. Species Molgula natalensis (Michaelsen, 1918) accepted as Molgula conchata Sluiter, 1898 (new combination)
  207. Species Molgula nodosa Hartmeyer, 1922 accepted as Molgula sabulosa (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834) (original combination)
  208. Species Molgula norvegica Kiaer, 1896 accepted as Molgula siphonalis Kiaer, 1896 (original combination)
  209. Species Molgula novaezelandiae (Michaelsen, 1912) accepted as Molgula novaeselandiae (Michaelsen, 1912) (misspelling)
  210. Species Molgula nuda Wagner, 1885 accepted as Molgula citrina Alder & Hancock, 1848 (original combination)
  211. Species Molgula pannosa Verrill, 1871 accepted as Molgula siphonalis Kiaer, 1896 (original combination)
  212. Species Molgula papillosa Verrill, 1871 accepted as Molgula complanata Alder & Hancock, 1870 (original combination)
  213. Species Molgula pellucida (Stimpson, 1852) accepted as Molgula griffithsii (MacLeay, 1825) (new combination)
  214. Species Molgula pilularis Verrill, 1871 accepted as Bostrichobranchus pilularis (Verrill, 1871) (original combination)
  215. Species Molgula piriformis Herdman, 1881 accepted as Molgula pyriformis Herdman, 1881 (literature misspelling)
  216. Species Molgula producta Stimpson, 1852 accepted as Molgula complanata Alder & Hancock, 1870 (original combination)
  217. Species Molgula psammodes Traustedt, 1880 accepted as Molgula occulta Kupffer, 1875 (original combination)
  218. Species Molgula psammophora (Agassiz, 1850) accepted as Molgula arenata Stimpson, 1852 (new combination)
  219. Species Molgula reducta Hartmeyer, 1922 accepted as Molgula calvata Sluiter, 1904 (original combination)
  220. Species Molgula ridgwayi (Herdman, 1906) accepted as Molgula ridgewayi (Herdman, 1906) (spelling mistake)
  221. Species Molgula roemeri Hartmeyer, 1903 accepted as Molgula romeri Hartmeyer, 1903 (spelling mistake)
  222. Species Molgula septentrionalis Traustedt, 1883 accepted as Molgula siphonalis Kiaer, 1896 (original combination)
  223. Species Molgula singularis (Van Name, 1912) accepted as Cratostigma singularis (Van Name, 1912) (new combination)
  224. Species Molgula sordida Stimpson, 1852 accepted as Molgula manhattensis (De Kay, 1843) (original combination)
  225. Species Molgula sphaeroidea Millar, 1970 accepted as Molguloides sphaeroidea (Millar, 1970) (original combination)
  226. Species Molgula sydneyensis Herdman, 1898 accepted as Molgula mollis Herdman, 1899 (unaccepted > nomen nudum)
  227. Species Molgula sydneyensis Herdman, 1899 accepted as Molgula mollis Herdman, 1899 (original combination)
  228. Species Molgula tenax Traustedt, 1883 accepted as Molgula complanata Alder & Hancock, 1870 (original combination)
  229. Species Molgula tenuis Kott, 1954 accepted as Molguloides tenuis Kott, 1954 (synonym)
  230. Species Molgula tubularis Forbes, 1848 accepted as Eugyra arenosa (Alder & Hancock, 1848) (original combination)
  231. Species Molgula tubulosa Forbes, 1848 accepted as Eugyra arenosa (Alder & Hancock, 1848) (literature misspelling)
  232. Species Molgula valvata Alder & Hancock, 1907 accepted as Eugyra arenosa (Alder & Hancock, 1848) (original combination)
  233. Species Molgula vitrea Sluiter, 1904 accepted as Molguloides vitrea (Sluiter, 1904) (original combination)
  234. Species Molgula wagneri Hartmeyer, 1903 accepted as Microcosmus glacialis (Sars, 1859) (original combination)
  235. Species Molgula inconspicua Stimpson, 1855 (uncertain > nomen dubium)
  236. Species Molgula labeculifera Stimpson, 1855 (uncertain > nomen dubium)
  237. Species Molgula recumbens Herdman, 1899 (uncertain > nomen dubium)
marine, fresh, terrestrial
Forbes, E. & Hanley, S. C. (1848-1853). A history of British Mollusca and their shells. Vol. 1: i-lxxx [1853], 1-486 [1848], pl. A-W, AA-ZZ, AAA-ZZZ [dates uncertain]; Vol. 2: 1-480 [1 dec. 1849], 481-557 [1850]; Vol. 3: 1-320 [1850], 321-616 [1851]; Vol. 4: 1-300 [1852], pl. 1-114F [dates uncertain]. London, van Voorst. <em>London, van Voorst.</em> 1:1-486., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/16341
page(s): 36 [details]   
Shenkar, N.; Gittenberger, A.; Lambert, G.; Rius, M.; Moreira da Rocha, R.; Swalla, B.J.; Turon, X. (2024). Ascidiacea World Database. Molgula Forbes, 1848. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=103509 on 2024-05-29
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2007-12-05 10:29:40Z
checked

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original description Forbes, E. & Hanley, S. C. (1848-1853). A history of British Mollusca and their shells. Vol. 1: i-lxxx [1853], 1-486 [1848], pl. A-W, AA-ZZ, AAA-ZZZ [dates uncertain]; Vol. 2: 1-480 [1 dec. 1849], 481-557 [1850]; Vol. 3: 1-320 [1850], 321-616 [1851]; Vol. 4: 1-300 [1852], pl. 1-114F [dates uncertain]. London, van Voorst. <em>London, van Voorst.</em> 1:1-486., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/16341
page(s): 36 [details]   

original description  (of Ascopera Herdman, 1881) Herdman, W. A. (1881). Preliminary report on the Tunicata of the Challenger expedition. Molgulidae. <em>Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh.</em> 11(4): 233-240. [details]   

original description  (of Anurella Lacaze-Duthiers, 1877) Lacaze-Duthiers, H. (1877). Histoire des ascidies simples des côtes de France. Deuxième partie: Étude des espèces. <em>Archives de Zoologie expérimentale et générale.</em> 6: 457-673. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Ctenicella Lacaze-Duthiers, 1877) Lacaze-Duthiers, H. (1877). Histoire des ascidies simples des côtes de France. Deuxième partie: Étude des espèces. <em>Archives de Zoologie expérimentale et générale.</em> 6: 457-673. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Cystingia MacLeay, 1825) MacLeay, W. S. (1825). Anatomical observations on the natural group of the Tunicata, with the description of three species collected in Fox Channel. <em>Trans. Linnean Soc. London.</em> 14: 527-555. [details]   

original description  (of Eugyriopsis Roule, 1885) Roule, L. (1885). Recherches sur les ascidies simples des côtes de Provence (famille des Cynthiadées). <em>Annales du Museum d'Histoire natururelle de Marseille.</em> 20: 1-229. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Eugyriopsis Roule, 1885) Roule, L. (1885). Sur trois nouvelles espèces d'ascidies simples des côtes de Provence. <em>Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences, Paris.</em> 100 : 1015-1017. [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Gymnocystis Giard, 1872) Giard, A. (1872). Etude critique des travaux d'embryogenie relatifs à la parenté des vertébrés et des tuniciers. Arch. Zool. expé. géné., 1 : 233-288 et 397-428. [details]   

original description  (of Lithonephrya Giard, 1872) Giard, A. (1872). Recherches sur les Ascidies composées ou Synascidies. <em>Archives de Zoologie Expérimentale et Générale.</em> 1:501-687, pls. 25-30. (Copepoda: 555). [details]   

original description  (of Pera Stimpson, 1852) Stimpson, W. (1852). Several new ascidians from the coast of the United States. <em>Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.</em> 4: 228-232. [details]   

original description  (of Xenomolgula Ärnbäck, 1931) Arnback, C. L. (1931). On Xenomolgula mira, gen. et sp.n. and Lithonephyra complanata Alder and Hancock. <em>Arkiv f. Zool.</em> 23(5): 1-14. [details]   

basis of record Monniot, C. (2001). Ascidiacea & Sorberacea. <em>In: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels.</em> 50: pp. 352-355. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Howson, C.M. & B.E. Picton. (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. <em>Ulster Museum Publication, 276. The Ulster Museum: Belfast, UK. ISBN 0-948150-06-8.</em> vi, 508 (+ cd-rom) pp. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 
 
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Japanese フクロボヤ属  [details]
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