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Verlaque, M.; Ruitton, S.; Mineur, F.; Boudouresque, C.-F. (2007). CIESM Atlas of Exotic Macrophytes in the Mediterranean Sea. Rapport de la Commission de l'Exploration de la mer Méditerranée, Monaco. 38.
Verlaque, M.; Ruitton, S.; Mineur, F.; Boudouresque, C.-F.
CIESM Atlas of Exotic Macrophytes in the Mediterranean Sea
Rapport de la Commission de l'Exploration de la mer Méditerranée, Monaco
Available for editors  PDF available
The CIESM Atlas of Exotic Species covers the marine macrophytes. A total of 110 species (22 Chromobionta, 71 Rhodobionta, 16 Chlorobionta and 1 Magnoliophyta) are listed. Several other exotic species only known on the NE Atlantic coast are listed in the Annex. The kinetics of species introduction into the Mediterranean Sea is exponential since the late 19th century. As far as the number of introduced macrophytes is concerned, the main donor area is the Indo-Pacific region, and the main vectors of introduction are the shellfish aquaculture, followed by the ship traffic and the Suez Canal. Diagnostic features, biological information, references and a distribution map are given for each species.
Invasions, introduction of alien species
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2015-07-27 07:22:36Z
2015-08-04 10:03:53Z
2018-12-10 08:52:52Z

Acanthophora nayadiformis (Delile) Papenfuss, 1968 (additional source)
Acrochaetium codicola Børgesen, 1927 accepted as Colaconema codicola (Børgesen) Stegenga, J.J.Bolton & R.J.Anderson, 1997 (additional source)
Acrochaetium robustum Børgesen, 1915 accepted as Colaconema robustum (Børgesen) Huisman & Woelkerling, 2018 (additional source)
Acrochaetium spathoglossi Børgesen, 1937 (additional source)
Acrochaetium subseriatum Børgesen, 1932 (additional source)
Acrothamnion preissii (Sonder) E.M.Wollaston, 1968 (additional source)
Acrothrix gracilis Kylin, 1907 (additional source)
Agardhiella subulata (C.Agardh) Kraft & M.J.Wynne, 1979 (additional source)
Aglaothamnion feldmanniae Halos, 1965 (additional source)
Ahnfeltiopsis flabelliformis (Harvey) Masuda, 1993 (additional source)
Anotrichium okamurae Baldock, 1976 accepted as Anotrichium furcellatum (J.Agardh) Baldock, 1976 (additional source)
Antithamnion amphigeneum A.Millar, 1990 (additional source)
Antithamnion nipponicum Yamada & Inagaki, 1935 (additional source)
Antithamnionella boergesenii (Cormaci & G.Furnari) Athanasiadis, 1996 (additional source)
Antithamnionella elegans (Berthold) J.H.Price & D.M.John, 1986 (additional source)
Antithamnionella spirographidis (Schiffner) E.M.Wollaston, 1968 (additional source)
Antithamnionella sublittoralis (Setchell & N.L.Gardner) Athanasiadis, 1996 (additional source)
Antithamnionella ternifolia (Hooker f. & Harvey) Lyle, 1922 (additional source)
Apoglossum gregarium (E.Y.Dawson) M.J.Wynne, 1985 accepted as Phrix spatulata (E.Y.Dawson) M.J.Wynne, M.Kamiya & J.A.West, 2018 (additional source)
Asparagopsis armata Harvey, 1855 (additional source)
Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan de Saint-Léon, 1845 (additional source)
Bonnemaisonia hamifera Hariot, 1891 (additional source)
Botryocladia madagascariensis G.Feldmann, 1945 (additional source)
Botrytella parva (Takamatsu) H.S.Kim, 1996 (additional source)
Caulerpa mexicana Sonder ex Kützing, 1849 (additional source)
Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder) Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, 2003 accepted as Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder, 1845 (additional source)
Caulerpa racemosa var. lamourouxii f. requienii (Montagne) Weber Bosse, 1913 (additional source)
Caulerpa racemosa var. turbinata (J.Agardh) Eubank, 1946 accepted as Caulerpa chemnitzia var. turbinata (J.Agardh) Fernández-García & Riosmena-Rodríguez, 2017 (additional source)
Caulerpa scalpelliformis (R.Brown ex Turner) C.Agardh, 1817 (additional source)
Caulerpa taxifolia (M.Vahl) C.Agardh, 1817 (additional source)
Ceramium bisporum D.L.Ballantine, 1990 (additional source)
Ceramium strobiliforme G.W.Lawson & D.M.John, 1982 (additional source)
Chondria coerulescens (J.Agardh) Falkenberg, 1901 accepted as Chondria coerulescens (J.Agardh) Sauvageau, 1897 (additional source)
Chondria curvilineata F.S.Collins & Hervey, 1917 (additional source)
Chondria pygmaea Garbary & Vandermeulen, 1990 (additional source)
Chondrus giganteus f. flabellatus Mikami, 1965 (additional source)
Chorda filum (Linnaeus) Stackhouse, 1797 (additional source)
Chrysymenia wrightii (Harvey) Yamada, 1932 accepted as Botryocladia wrightii (Harvey) W.E.Schmidt, D.L.Ballantine & Fredericq, 2017 (additional source)
Cladophora herpestica (Montagne) Kützing, 1849 accepted as Lychaete herpestica (Montagne) M.J.Wynne, 2017 (additional source)
Cladophora patentiramea (Montagne) Kützing, 1849 (additional source)
Cladosiphon zosterae (J.Agardh) Kylin, 1940 (additional source)
Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot, 1889 (additional source)
Codium taylorii P.C.Silva, 1960 (additional source)
Dasya sessilis Yamada, 1928 (additional source)
Derbesia boergesenii (M.O.P.Iyengar & Ramanathan) Mayhoub, 1976 (additional source)
Derbesia rhizophora Yamada, 1961 (additional source)
Desmarestia viridis (O.F.Müller) J.V.Lamouroux, 1813 (additional source)
Ectocarpus siliculosus var. hiemalis (P.L.Crouan & H.M.Crouan) Gallardo, 1992 (additional source)
Fucus spiralis Linnaeus, 1753 (additional source)
Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux, 1816 (additional source)
Ganonema farinosum (J.V.Lamouroux) K.-C.Fan & Y.-C.Wang, 1974 (additional source)
Goniotrichopsis sublittoralis G.M.Smith, 1943 (additional source)
Gracilaria arcuata Zanardini, 1858 (additional source)
Grateloupia asiatica S.Kawaguchi & H.W.Wang, 2001 (additional source)
Grateloupia lanceolata (Okamura) Kawaguchi, 1997 accepted as Pachymeniopsis lanceolata (Okamura) Yamada ex Kawabata, 1954 (additional source)
Grateloupia patens (Okamura) S.Kawaguchi & H.W.Wang, 2001 (additional source)
Grateloupia subpectinata Holmes, 1912 (additional source)
Grateloupia turuturu Yamada, 1941 (additional source)
Griffithsia corallinoides (Linnaeus) Trevisan, 1845 (additional source)
Halophila stipulacea (Forsskål) Ascherson, 1867 (additional source)
Halothrix lumbricalis (Kützing) Reinke, 1888 (additional source)
Herposiphonia parca Setchell, 1926 (additional source)
Hypnea cornuta (Kützing) J.Agardh, 1851 (additional source)
Hypnea flagelliformis Greville ex J.Agardh, 1851 (additional source)
Hypnea spinella (C.Agardh) Kützing, 1847 (additional source)
Hypnea valentiae (Turner) Montagne, 1841 (additional source)
Laurencia caduciramulosa Masuda & Kawaguchi, 1997 (additional source)
Laurencia okamurae Yamada, 1931 (additional source)
Leathesia difformis Areschoug, 1847 accepted as Leathesia marina (Lyngbye) Decaisne, 1842 (additional source)
Lithophyllum yessoense Foslie, 1909 (additional source)
Lomentaria hakodatensis Yendo, 1920 (additional source)
Lophocladia lallemandii (Montagne) F.Schmitz, 1893 accepted as Lophocladia trichoclados (C.Agardh) F.Schmitz, 1893 (additional source)
Nemalion vermiculare Suringar, 1874 (additional source)
Neomeris annulata Dickie, 1874 (additional source)
Neosiphonia harveyi (Bailey) M.-S.Kim, H.-G.Choi, Guiry & G.W.Saunders, 2001 accepted as Melanothamnus harveyi (Bailey) Díaz-Tapia & Maggs, 2017 (additional source)
Nitophyllum stellato-corticatum Okamura, 1932 (additional source)
Padina boergesenii Allender & Kraft, 1983 (additional source)
Padina boryana Thivy, 1966 (additional source)
Pleonosporium caribaeum (Børgesen) R.E.Norris, 1985 accepted as Spongoclonium caribaeum (Børgesen) M.J.Wynne, 2005 (additional source)
Plocamium secundatum (Kützing) Kützing, 1866 (additional source)
Polysiphonia atlantica Kapraun & J.N.Norris, 1982 (additional source)
Polysiphonia fucoides (Hudson) Greville, 1824 accepted as Vertebrata fucoides (Hudson) Kuntze, 1891 (additional source)
Polysiphonia morrowii Harvey, 1857 (additional source)
Polysiphonia paniculata Montagne, 1842 accepted as Eutrichosiphonia paniculata (Montagne) D.E.Bustamante & T.O.Cho, 2021 (additional source)
Porphyra yezoensis Ueda, 1932 accepted as Pyropia yezoensis (Ueda) M.S.Hwang & H.G.Choi, 2011 (additional source)
Pterosiphonia tanakae Uwai & Masuda, 1999 accepted as Symphyocladiella dendroidea (Montagne) D.Bustamante, B.Y.Won, S.C.Lindstrom & T.O.Cho, 2019 (additional source)
Punctaria tenuissima (C.Agardh) Greville, 1830 (additional source)
Pylaiella littoralis (Linnaeus) Kjellman, 1872 (additional source)
Rhodophysema georgei Batters, 1900 (additional source)
Rhodymenia erythraea Zanardini, 1858 (additional source)
Rugulopteryx okamurae (E.Y.Dawson) I.K.Hwang, W.J.Lee & H.S.Kim, 2009 (additional source)
Saccharina japonica (Areschoug) C.E.Lane, C.Mayes, Druehl & G.W.Saunders, 2006 (additional source)
Sarconema filiforme (Sonder) Kylin, 1932 (additional source)
Sarconema scinaioides Børgesen, 1934 (additional source)
Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt, 1955 (additional source)
Scytosiphon dotyi M.J.Wynne, 1969 (additional source)
Solieria dura (Zanardini) F.Schmitz, 1895 (additional source)
Solieria filiformis (Kützing) P.W.Gabrielson, 1985 (additional source)
Spatoglossum variabile Figari & De Notaris, 1853 (additional source)
Sphaerotrichia firma (E.S.Gepp) A.D.Zinova, 1958 (additional source)
Mediterranean Sea for Acrochaetium spathoglossi Børgesen, 1937  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Anotrichium okamurae Baldock, 1976  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Antithamnionella boergesenii (Cormaci & G.Furnari) Athanasiadis, 1996  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Antithamnionella elegans (Berthold) J.H.Price & D.M.John, 1986  (origin: origin unknown)
Mediterranean Sea for Antithamnionella spirographidis (Schiffner) E.M.Wollaston, 1968  (origin: origin unknown)
Mediterranean Sea for Antithamnionella sublittoralis (Setchell & N.L.Gardner) Athanasiadis, 1996  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Antithamnionella ternifolia (Hooker f. & Harvey) Lyle, 1922  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Caulerpa mexicana Sonder ex Kützing, 1849  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder) Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, 2003  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Caulerpa racemosa var. lamourouxii f. requienii (Montagne) Weber Bosse, 1913  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Caulerpa racemosa var. turbinata (J.Agardh) Eubank, 1946  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Ceramium strobiliforme G.W.Lawson & D.M.John, 1982  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Chondria coerulescens (J.Agardh) Falkenberg, 1901  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Cladophora patentiramea (Montagne) Kützing, 1849  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Cladosiphon zosterae (J.Agardh) Kylin, 1940  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Dasya sessilis Yamada, 1928  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Desmarestia viridis (O.F.Müller) J.V.Lamouroux, 1813  (origin: origin unknown)
Mediterranean Sea for Dictyota okamurae (E.Y.Dawson) Hörnig, R.Schnetter & Prud'homme van Reine, 1993  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Ectocarpus siliculosus var. hiemalis (P.L.Crouan & H.M.Crouan) Gallardo, 1992  (origin: origin unknown)
Mediterranean Sea for Ganonema farinosum (J.V.Lamouroux) K.-C.Fan & Y.-C.Wang, 1974  (origin: origin unknown)
Mediterranean Sea for Goniotrichopsis sublittoralis G.M.Smith, 1943  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Grateloupia patens (Okamura) S.Kawaguchi & H.W.Wang, 2001  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Laurencia caduciramulosa Masuda & Kawaguchi, 1997  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Nemalion vermiculare Suringar, 1874  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Padina boryana Thivy, 1966  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Pilayella littoralis (Linnaeus) Kjellman, 1872  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Polysiphonia atlantica Kapraun & J.N.Norris, 1982  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Polysiphonia fucoides (Hudson) Greville, 1824  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Porphyra yezoensis Ueda, 1932  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Punctaria tenuissima (C.Agardh) Greville, 1830  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Solieria dura (Zanardini) F.Schmitz, 1895  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Spatoglossum variabile Figari & De Notaris, 1853  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Symphyocladia marchantioides (Harvey) Falkenberg, 1897  (origin: alien)
Mediterranean Sea for Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813  (origin: alien)