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WoRMS taxon details

Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)

140262  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:140262)

accepted
Species
Cerion botrys Röding, 1798 · unaccepted (junior synonym)
Litorina litorea [sic] · unaccepted (misspelling of accepted species...)  
misspelling of accepted species name, Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
Littorina (Algaroda) littorea (Linnaeus, 1758) · unaccepted > superseded combination
Littorina litorea [sic] · unaccepted > misspelling - incorrect subsequent spelling (of Littorina littorea (Linnaeus,...)  
of Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
Nerita littorea (Linnaeus, 1758) · unaccepted > superseded combination
Turbo elongatus S. Woodward, 1833 · unaccepted > junior homonym (junior homonym of Turbo elongatus...)  
junior homonym of Turbo elongatus Defrance, 1827
Turbo litoreus [sic] · unaccepted (misspelling)
Turbo littoreus Linnaeus, 1758 · unaccepted (original combination)

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  1. Forma Littorina littorea f. intermedia Brøgger, 1901 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  2. Variety Littorina littorea var. angulata Harmer, 1920 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  3. Variety Littorina littorea var. antiqua S. V. Wood, 1848 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  4. Variety Littorina littorea var. balteata Dautzenberg & H. Fischer, 1912 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  5. Variety Littorina littorea var. complanata Harmer, 1920 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  6. Variety Littorina littorea var. conica Harmer, 1920 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  7. Variety Littorina littorea var. deformis S. V. Wood, 1848 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  8. Variety Littorina littorea var. delphinula S. V. Wood, 1848 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  9. Variety Littorina littorea var. distorta Harmer, 1920 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  10. Variety Littorina littorea var. elegans S. V. Wood, 1848 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  11. Variety Littorina littorea var. fuscofasciatus Middendorff, 1849 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  12. Variety Littorina littorea var. major Dautzenberg & Durouchoux, 1913 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  13. Variety Littorina littorea var. miniata Dautzenberg & Durouchoux, 1900 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  14. Variety Littorina littorea var. pallida Dautzenberg & Durouchoux, 1900 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  15. Variety Littorina littorea var. pallidefasciatus Middendorff, 1849 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  16. Variety Littorina littorea var. parva Harmer, 1920 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  17. Variety Littorina littorea var. picta S. V. Wood, 1848 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  18. Variety Littorina littorea var. pyramidata S. V. Wood, 1848 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  19. Variety Littorina littorea var. sanguinea Dautzenberg & Durouchoux, 1906 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  20. Variety Littorina littorea var. truncata Harmer, 1920 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  21. Variety Littorina littorea var. unicarinata Raeymaekers, 1889 accepted as Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
recent + fossil
(of Turbo littoreus Linnaeus, 1758) Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. <em>Editio decima, reformata [10th revised edition], vol. 1: 824 pp. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae.</em> , available online at https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/726886
page(s): 761 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 
Distribution Rare or absent in Isles of Scilly and Channel Isles  
Distribution Rare or absent in Isles of Scilly and Channel Isles [details]

Distribution Labrador to Maryland; Western Europe  
Distribution Labrador to Maryland; Western Europe [details]
MolluscaBase eds. (2024). MolluscaBase. Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=140262 on 2024-06-25
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2010-01-07 10:29:10Z
changed
2022-09-11 08:02:20Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description  (of Turbo littoreus Linnaeus, 1758) Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. <em>Editio decima, reformata [10th revised edition], vol. 1: 824 pp. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae.</em> , available online at https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/726886
page(s): 761 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

original description  (of Turbo ustulatus Lamarck, 1822) Lamarck, [J.-B. M.] de. (1822). Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres. Tome septième. Paris: published by the author, 711 pp. , available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/47433
page(s): 48 [details]   

original description  (of Turbo carinatus S. Woodward, 1833) Woodward, S. (1833). <i>An outline of the geology of Norfolk</i>. John Stacy, Norwich. Longman & Co, London. pp. 54, pls I - VI, 1 map. , available online at http://books.google.com/books?id=6msRAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover
page(s): 44 [details]   

original description  (of Turbo ventricosus S. Woodward, 1833) Woodward, S. (1833). <i>An outline of the geology of Norfolk</i>. John Stacy, Norwich. Longman & Co, London. pp. 54, pls I - VI, 1 map. , available online at http://books.google.com/books?id=6msRAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover
page(s): 44 [details]   

original description  (of Turbo bicarinatus S. Woodward, 1833) Woodward, S. (1833). <i>An outline of the geology of Norfolk</i>. John Stacy, Norwich. Longman & Co, London. pp. 54, pls I - VI, 1 map. , available online at http://books.google.com/books?id=6msRAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover
page(s): 44 [details]   

original description  (of Turbo sulcatus S. Woodward, 1833) Woodward, S. (1833). <i>An outline of the geology of Norfolk</i>. John Stacy, Norwich. Longman & Co, London. pp. 54, pls I - VI, 1 map. , available online at http://books.google.com/books?id=6msRAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover
page(s): 44 [details]   

original description  (of Turbo elongatus S. Woodward, 1833) Woodward, S. (1833). <i>An outline of the geology of Norfolk</i>. John Stacy, Norwich. Longman & Co, London. pp. 54, pls I - VI, 1 map. , available online at http://books.google.com/books?id=6msRAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover
page(s): 44 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina vulgaris J. Sowerby, 1832) Sowerby I, G. B. (1821-1834). <i>The genera of recent and fossil shells, for the use of students, in conchology and geology</i>. Published in 42 parts. Vol. 1, pls 1-126 [1821-1825]; vol. 2, pls 127-262 + text (unpaginated) [1825-1834]. London: G. B. Sowerby. , available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/45486673 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina bartonensis T. Brown, 1843) Brown T. (1849). Illustrations of the fossil conchology of Great Britain and Ireland, with descriptions and localities of all the species. Smith, Elder, and Co., London and MacLachlan and Stewart, Edinburgh. viii + 273 pp., 98 pls., available online at http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433090911037
page(s): 44 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina communis T. Brown, 1843) Brown, T. (1837-1849). Illustrations of the Fossil Conchology of Great Britain and Ireland. 273 pp. London (Smith, Eider). [details]   

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. antiqua S. V. Wood, 1848) Wood, S. V. (1848). A Monograph of the Crag Mollusca or, descriptions of shells from the middle and upper tertiaries of the east of England. Part 1. Univalves. <em>Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society of London.</em> 1, xii + 1–208, 21: pls., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/67729 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. picta S. V. Wood, 1848) Wood, S. V. (1848). A Monograph of the Crag Mollusca or, descriptions of shells from the middle and upper tertiaries of the east of England. Part 1. Univalves. <em>Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society of London.</em> 1, xii + 1–208, 21: pls., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/67729 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. elegans S. V. Wood, 1848) Wood, S. V. (1848). A Monograph of the Crag Mollusca or, descriptions of shells from the middle and upper tertiaries of the east of England. Part 1. Univalves. <em>Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society of London.</em> 1, xii + 1–208, 21: pls., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/67729 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. pyramidata S. V. Wood, 1848) Wood, S. V. (1848). A Monograph of the Crag Mollusca or, descriptions of shells from the middle and upper tertiaries of the east of England. Part 1. Univalves. <em>Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society of London.</em> 1, xii + 1–208, 21: pls., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/67729 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. delphinula S. V. Wood, 1848) Wood, S. V. (1848). A Monograph of the Crag Mollusca or, descriptions of shells from the middle and upper tertiaries of the east of England. Part 1. Univalves. <em>Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society of London.</em> 1, xii + 1–208, 21: pls., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/67729 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. deformis S. V. Wood, 1848) Wood, S. V. (1848). A Monograph of the Crag Mollusca or, descriptions of shells from the middle and upper tertiaries of the east of England. Part 1. Univalves. <em>Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society of London.</em> 1, xii + 1–208, 21: pls., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/67729 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. fuscofasciatus Middendorff, 1849) Middendorff T. A. von. (1849). Beiträge zur einer Malacozoologica Rossica, II. Aufzählung und Beschreibung der zur Meeresfauna Russlands gehörigen Einschaler. <em>Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St-Petersbourg, sixième série, Sciences naturelles.</em> 6: 329-516, pl. 1-11., available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/29015189
page(s): 383 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. pallidefasciatus Middendorff, 1849) Middendorff T. A. von. (1849). Beiträge zur einer Malacozoologica Rossica, II. Aufzählung und Beschreibung der zur Meeresfauna Russlands gehörigen Einschaler. <em>Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St-Petersbourg, sixième série, Sciences naturelles.</em> 6: 329-516, pl. 1-11., available online at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/29015189
page(s): 383 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina litorea var. paupercula Jeffreys, 1865) Jeffreys, J. G. (1862-1869). <i>British conchology</i>. Vol. 1: pp. cxiv + 341 [1862]. Vol. 2: pp. 479 [1864]. Vol. 3: pp. 394 [1865]. Vol. 4: pp. 487 [1867]. Vol. 5: pp. 259 [1869]. London, van Voorst. , available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/55187 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina litorea var. brevicula Jeffreys, 1865) Jeffreys, J. G. (1862-1869). <i>British conchology</i>. Vol. 1: pp. cxiv + 341 [1862]. Vol. 2: pp. 479 [1864]. Vol. 3: pp. 394 [1865]. Vol. 4: pp. 487 [1867]. Vol. 5: pp. 259 [1869]. London, van Voorst. , available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/55187
page(s): 369 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina litorea var. turrita Jeffreys, 1865) Jeffreys, J. G. (1862-1869). <i>British conchology</i>. Vol. 1: pp. cxiv + 341 [1862]. Vol. 2: pp. 479 [1864]. Vol. 3: pp. 394 [1865]. Vol. 4: pp. 487 [1867]. Vol. 5: pp. 259 [1869]. London, van Voorst. , available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/55187
page(s): 3: 369 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina litorea var. sinistrorsa Jeffreys, 1865) Jeffreys, J. G. (1862-1869). <i>British conchology</i>. Vol. 1: pp. cxiv + 341 [1862]. Vol. 2: pp. 479 [1864]. Vol. 3: pp. 394 [1865]. Vol. 4: pp. 487 [1867]. Vol. 5: pp. 259 [1869]. London, van Voorst. , available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/55187
page(s): 3: 370 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina armoricana Locard, 1886) Locard, A. (1886). <i>Prodrome de malacologie française. Catalogue général des mollusques vivants de France. Mollusques marins</i>. Lyon: H. Georg & Paris: Baillière. x + 778 pp. , available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10831012
page(s): 285, 580 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina sphaeroidalis Locard, 1886) Locard, A. (1886). <i>Prodrome de malacologie française. Catalogue général des mollusques vivants de France. Mollusques marins</i>. Lyon: H. Georg & Paris: Baillière. x + 778 pp. , available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/10831012
page(s): 285-286, 580 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. unicarinata Raeymaekers, 1889) Raeymaekers, D. (1889). Note sur la variete "unicarinata", nobis. observee chez le "Littorina littorea (male). <em>Annales de la Societe Royale Malacologique de Belgique.</em> 24: xxxvi-xxxviii. [details]   

original description  (of Littorina parva Teilman-Friis, 1898) Teilmann-Friis A. (1898). Smaa Bidrag til Artsbestemmelserne indefor Slaegterne <i>Littorina</i> og <i>Hydrobia</i>. <i>Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn 1897</i>: 211-215
page(s): 211-213, fig. 1b [details]   

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. pallida Dautzenberg & Durouchoux, 1900) Dautzenberg, P. & Durouchoux, P. (1900). Faunule malacologique des environs de Saint-Malo. <em>La Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes.</em> 31: 39-62., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/44471694
page(s): 45 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. miniata Dautzenberg & Durouchoux, 1900) Dautzenberg, P. & Durouchoux, P. (1900). Faunule malacologique des environs de Saint-Malo. <em>La Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes.</em> 31: 39-62., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/44471694
page(s): 45 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina littorea f. intermedia Brøgger, 1901) Brøgger W.C. 1900-1901. Om de senglaciale og postglaciale nivåforandringer i Kristianiafeltet (Molluskfaunan). <i>Norges Geologiske Undersøgelse</i>, 31: 1-731, pl. 1-19. , available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/53299
page(s): Pl. 12, fig. 6 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. sanguinea Dautzenberg & Durouchoux, 1906) Dautzenberg, Ph.; Durouchoux, P. (1906). Supplément à la faune malacologique des environs de Saint-Malo. Feuille jeunes nat. 36: 39-45, 53-60, 73-77 (look up in IMIS)
page(s): 44 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. balteata Dautzenberg & H. Fischer, 1912) Dautzenberg, P. & Fischer, H. (1912). <i>Mollusques provenant des campagnes de l'Hirondelle et de la Princesse-Alice dans les Mers du Nord</i>. Résultats des Campagnes Scientifiques Accomplies sur son Yacht par Albert Ier Prince Souverain de Monaco, 37: 1-629, 11 plates. , available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/40217555
page(s): 186 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. major Dautzenberg & Durouchoux, 1913) Dautzenberg, P.; Durouchoux, P. (1913). Les mollusques de la Baie de Saint-Malo (suite). <em>La Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes.</em> 43(515): 9-16., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/44470268
page(s): 21 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. parva Harmer, 1920) Harmer F. W. (1920-1925). The Pliocene Mollusca of Great Britain, being supplementary to S.V. Wood's monograph of the Crag Mollusca. Vol. 2. <em>Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society.</em> 72(344): 485-652, pl. 45-52 (part 1, December 1920); 73(346): 653-704, pl. 53-56 (part 2, July 1921); 75(352): 705-856, pl. 57-64 (part 3, December 1923); 76(354): i-xiv, 857-900, pl. 65 (part 4, January 1925)., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/36960258
page(s): 648 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. distorta Harmer, 1920) Harmer F. W. (1920-1925). The Pliocene Mollusca of Great Britain, being supplementary to S.V. Wood's monograph of the Crag Mollusca. Vol. 2. <em>Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society.</em> 72(344): 485-652, pl. 45-52 (part 1, December 1920); 73(346): 653-704, pl. 53-56 (part 2, July 1921); 75(352): 705-856, pl. 57-64 (part 3, December 1923); 76(354): i-xiv, 857-900, pl. 65 (part 4, January 1925)., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/36960258 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. conica Harmer, 1920) Harmer F. W. (1920-1925). The Pliocene Mollusca of Great Britain, being supplementary to S.V. Wood's monograph of the Crag Mollusca. Vol. 2. <em>Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society.</em> 72(344): 485-652, pl. 45-52 (part 1, December 1920); 73(346): 653-704, pl. 53-56 (part 2, July 1921); 75(352): 705-856, pl. 57-64 (part 3, December 1923); 76(354): i-xiv, 857-900, pl. 65 (part 4, January 1925)., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/36960258 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. complanata Harmer, 1920) Harmer F. W. (1920-1925). The Pliocene Mollusca of Great Britain, being supplementary to S.V. Wood's monograph of the Crag Mollusca. Vol. 2. <em>Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society.</em> 72(344): 485-652, pl. 45-52 (part 1, December 1920); 73(346): 653-704, pl. 53-56 (part 2, July 1921); 75(352): 705-856, pl. 57-64 (part 3, December 1923); 76(354): i-xiv, 857-900, pl. 65 (part 4, January 1925)., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/36960258 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. angulata Harmer, 1920) Harmer F. W. (1920-1925). The Pliocene Mollusca of Great Britain, being supplementary to S.V. Wood's monograph of the Crag Mollusca. Vol. 2. <em>Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society.</em> 72(344): 485-652, pl. 45-52 (part 1, December 1920); 73(346): 653-704, pl. 53-56 (part 2, July 1921); 75(352): 705-856, pl. 57-64 (part 3, December 1923); 76(354): i-xiv, 857-900, pl. 65 (part 4, January 1925)., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/36960258
page(s): 652 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Littorina littorea var. truncata Harmer, 1920) Harmer F. W. (1920-1925). The Pliocene Mollusca of Great Britain, being supplementary to S.V. Wood's monograph of the Crag Mollusca. Vol. 2. <em>Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society.</em> 72(344): 485-652, pl. 45-52 (part 1, December 1920); 73(346): 653-704, pl. 53-56 (part 2, July 1921); 75(352): 705-856, pl. 57-64 (part 3, December 1923); 76(354): i-xiv, 857-900, pl. 65 (part 4, January 1925)., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/36960258
page(s): 652 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Littorina rudis var. reevei Harmer, 1921) Harmer F. W. (1920-1925). The Pliocene Mollusca of Great Britain, being supplementary to S.V. Wood's monograph of the Crag Mollusca. Vol. 2. <em>Monographs of the Palaeontographical Society.</em> 72(344): 485-652, pl. 45-52 (part 1, December 1920); 73(346): 653-704, pl. 53-56 (part 2, July 1921); 75(352): 705-856, pl. 57-64 (part 3, December 1923); 76(354): i-xiv, 857-900, pl. 65 (part 4, January 1925)., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/36960258 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

original description  (of Cerion botrys Röding, 1798) Röding, P. F. (1798). Museum Boltenianum sive Catalogus cimeliorum e tribus regnis naturæ quæ olim collegerat Joa. Fried Bolten, M. D. p. d. per XL. annos proto physicus Hamburgensis. Pars secunda continens Conchylia sive Testacea univalvia, bivalvia & multivalvia. Trapp, Hamburg, viii + 199 pp., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/16230659
page(s): 90 [details]   

original description  (of Littorina rudis var. aurantia Dautzenberg & H. Fischer, 1925) Dautzenberg, P.; Fischer, H. (1925). Les mollusques marins du Finistère et en particulier de la région de Roscoff. <em>Travaux de la Station Biologique de Roscoff.</em> 2: 1-180. (look up in IMIS[details]   

context source (Introduced species) Molnar, J.L., R.L. Gamboa, C. Revenga & M.D. Spalding. (2008). Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. <em>Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.</em> 6(9): 485-492., available online at https://www.conservationgateway.org/ConservationPractices/Marine/Pages/marineinvasives.aspx [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

context source (RAS) Australian Antarctic Data Centre. , available online at https://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/biodiversity/ [details]   

context source (Schelde) van Eck, G. Th. M.; Holzhauer, H. (2007). Monitoring van de effecten van de verruiming 48'/43': MOVE eindrapport 2006 (Rapport 10). <em>Rapport RIKZ = Report RIKZ, 2007.003. RIKZ: Middelburg.</em> 64 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record Reid, D. G. (1996). Systematics and evolution of <i>Littorina</i>. <em>The Ray Society.</em> 463p. [details]   

additional source Reid, D. G. (1989). The comparative morphology, phylogeny and evolution of the gastropod family Littorinidae. <em>Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.</em> 324: 1-110., available online at https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/pdf/10.1098/rstb.1989.0040 [details]   

additional source Latchford, F. R. (1915). <i>Littorina littorea</i> a fish. <em>The Nautilus.</em> 29(8): 96., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/1815895 [details]   

additional source Clench, W. J. (1930). <i>Littorina littorea</i> Linn. <em>The Nautilus.</em> 43(3): 105., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/8515159 [details]   

additional source Alexander, R. C. (1947). <i>Littorina littorea</i> on the New Jersey coast. <em>The Nautilus.</em> 60(3): 73-76., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/8523756 [details]   

additional source Alexander, R. C. (1947). <i>Littorina littorea</i> in New Jersey. <em>The Nautilus.</em> 61(2): 71., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/8284771 [details]   

additional source Dexter, R. W. (1961). Early records of <i>Littorina littorea</i> from the coast of Massachusetts. <em>The Nautilus.</em> 74(3): 120-121., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/8524001 [details]   

additional source Clarke, A. H., Jr. (1963). Supplementary notes on Pre-Colombian <i>Littorina littorea</i> in Nova Scotia. <em>The Nautilus.</em> 77(1): 8-11., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/8520305 [details]   

additional source Davis, D. S. (1972). An unusual form of <i>Littorina littorea</i> Linné found in Nova Scotia. <em>The Nautilus.</em> 86(2-4): 87., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/8511600 [details]   

biology source Tepolt, C. K. (2014). Adaptation in marine invasion: a genetic perspective. <em>Biological Invasions.</em> 17(3): 887-903., available online at https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-014-0825-8
note: Here, I review evidence for adaptation in marine invasion, considering both quantitative and genetic studies. [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 
 
 Present  Present in aphia/obis/gbif/idigbio   Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
   

From regional or thematic species database
Introduced species impact in California (State) : Other impact - undefined or uncertain [details]

Introduced species impact in United States (Nation) : Alters bio-geochemical/hydrologic cycles [details]

Introduced species impact in United States (Nation) : Consumes native species (predator or herbivore) [details]

Introduced species impact in The Coastal Waters of Southeast Alaska and British Columbia (IHO Sea Area) : Alters bio-geochemical/hydrologic cycles [details]

Introduced species impact in The Coastal Waters of Southeast Alaska and British Columbia (IHO Sea Area) : Consumes native species (predator or herbivore) [details]

Introduced species vector dispersal United States part of the North Pacific Ocean (Marine Region) Aquaculture: accidental [details]

From other sources
Dimensions maximum size of 20 to 25 mm in length [details]

Distribution Rare or absent in Isles of Scilly and Channel Isles [details]

Distribution Labrador to Maryland; Western Europe [details]

Habitat intertidal, bathyal, infralittoral and circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary [details]

Importance favorite food in Europe [details]
    Definitions

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LanguageName 
Catalan caragolí comú  [details]
Danish store strandsneglalmindelige strandsnegl  [details]
Dutch gewone alikruikalikruik  [details]
English periwinkleedible winklecommon winklecommon periwinkle  [details]
Finnish rantakotilo  [details]
French vignotlittorine commune d'Europelittorine communcaracolebigorneau communbigorneau  [details]
German Hölkergemeine Uferschneckegemeine Strandschnecke  [details]
Italian littorina comune  [details]
Norwegian Bokmål storstrandsnegl  [details]
Norwegian Nynorsk storstrandsnigel  [details]
Portuguese caramujo  [details]
Scottish Gaelic faocha  [details]
Spanish caracolillobígaro  [details]
Swedish vanlig strandsnäcka  [details]