Almeida, D.S.; Sandes, J.; Guimarães, C.R.P.; Muricy, G. (2021). Taxonomy of Geodia and Rhabdastrella from the Brazilian coast: a new species, new synonyms and redescription of Geodia tylastra (Demospongiae: Astrophorina: Geodiidae and Ancorinidae). Zootaxa. 4995(2): 281-302.
Almeida, D.S.; Sandes, J.; Guimarães, C.R.P.; Muricy, G.
Taxonomy of <i>Geodia</i> and <i>Rhabdastrella</i> from the Brazilian coast: a new species, new synonyms and redescription of <i>Geodia tylastra</i> (Demospongiae: Astrophorina: Geodiidae and Ancorinidae)
In this contribution we revise the type specimens of Geodia tylastra, Rhabdastrella fibrosa and Geodia corticostylifera, adding new photographs of preserved specimens, skeleton sections, and scanning electron micrographs of the spicules. We demonstrate that the three species are synonyms, with priority to the older name G. tylastra Boury-Esnault, 1973. We also show that Rhabdastrella fibrosa sensu Van Soest (2017) differs from the holotype in spicule composition and is here given a new name, Rhabdastrella vansoesti sp. nov. In addition, we describe a new species of Geodia, G. polytriaena sp. nov., and new records of G. glariosa and G. tylastra from Sergipe State, in the Northeast Brazilian coast. With the description of Geodia polytriaena sp. nov. and the synonymyzation of G. corticostylifera, 20 species of Geodia are now known in the Tropical Western Atlantic Ocean
South West Atlantic ( =only warm temperate; cold temperate see *SUB)