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Foster, Nancy Marie. (1971). Spionidae (Polychaeta) of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Studies on the Fauna of Curaçao and other Caribbean Islands. 36(129): 1-183.
Foster, Nancy Marie
Spionidae (Polychaeta) of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea
Studies on the Fauna of Curaçao and other Caribbean Islands
36(129): 1-183
World Polychaeta Database (WPolyDb)
Available for editors  PDF available
[None. Introduction starts as follows:]
Although there have been several collections of polychaetous annelids from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, very few spionids have been included in the published species lists. This is not because they are poorly represented in this area but probably a result of their small size and the fact that they are easily overlooked both in collecting and in sorting of samples. It is also probable that their small size renders them an unpopular group with which to work. Very few spionids were reported from collections of the early large scale collecting cruises. This can be, at least in part, attributed to the fact that they are more common in littoral habitats than in deeper waters.
Schmarda (1861) reported three species as a result of his world cruise (1853—57) during which he visited several Caribbean Islands. Treadwell (1901, 1931a + b, 1939a, 1939b) reported only three species and this included his treatment of the annelids collected during the Scientific Survey of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Other contributions include works by Augener (1906, 1927, 1933), Horst (1922), Kavanagh (1940) and Behre (1950). Hartman (1951) reported on a collection of littoral polychaetes from the Gulf of Mexico. The latter included what is probably the largest number of spionids dealt with in a single study up to that time. Twelve species were reported, most of which represented new records. Later, small papers were contributed by Carpenter (1956) from the northern Gulf, Friedrich (1956) from Central and South America and Wesenberg-Lund (1958) from the Lesser Antilles. Finally in 1962, Jones reported on a collection of polychaetes from Jamaica which included two spionid species.
Caribbean region
Gulf of Mexico
Systematics, Taxonomy
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
2016-03-05 22:24:46Z
2019-03-26 08:04:01Z


Foster (1971) used Microspio downgraded to a subgenus of Spio. However, mostly it is treated as a full genus in ... [details]


Authors, none of whom have treated Aonides as masculine, may have assumed 'Aonides' was derived from the ... [details]


Rhynchospio was treated as feminine by Hartman (1936), and explicitly stated as feminine by Radashevsky (2007). No ... [details]

 Grammatical gender

Unresolved. Spiophanes has been treated as masculine by modern authors, notably by Meißner, the revisor of the ... [details]


Claparède, 1869, originally should have used 'mecznikowiana' for agreement with the feminine genus Spio, as the ... [details]


Original name is a misspelling. Claparède should have used 'mecznikowiana' for agreement with the feminine genus ... [details]


Prionospio fallax Söderström, 1920 was considered to be a junior synonym of Prionospio malmgreni Claparède, 1869 ... [details]


Foster (1971:107) transferred Prionospio cirrobranchiata Day to her new genus Minuspio without comment. Maciolek ... [details]


Nerine cirratulus chilensis was included in the list of synonyms of Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata (Müller, ... [details]


Prionospio malmgreni Claparède, 1869, described from the Gulf of Naples (Mediterranean Sea), was considered to be ... [details]


Verrill described S. tenuis consecutively, after S. viridis, from the same place and habitat. He did not say why he ... [details]


The name combinations Foster (1971) included in a listing of Spio (Microspio) species have not been given separate ... [details]


Status uncertain. We have not ascertained whether the original taxon has been recorded since the original ... [details]

 Type material

Known from one incomplete specimen [details]

 Type species

Foster (1971:33) stated she designates Euspio mesnili as type species of Euspio. E. mesnili precedes E. gravieri in ... [details]

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