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Porifera source details

Dohrmann, M.; Janussen, D.; Reitner, J.; Collins, A.G.; Wörheide, G. (2008). Phylogeny and evolution of glass sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida). Systematic Biology. 57: 388–405.
Dohrmann, M.; Janussen, D.; Reitner, J.; Collins, A.G.; Wörheide, G.
Phylogeny and evolution of glass sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida)
Systematic Biology
57: 388–405
Available for editors  PDF available [request]
Reconstructing the phylogeny of sponges (Porifera) is one of the remaining challenges to resolve the metazoan Tree of Life and is a prerequisite for understanding early animal evolution. Molecular phylogenetic analyses for two of the three extant classes of the phylum, Demospongiae and Calcarea, are largely incongruent with traditional classifications, most likely because of a paucity of informative morphological characters and high levels of homoplasy. For the third class, Hexactinellida (glass sponges)—predominantly deep-sea inhabitants with unusual morphology and biology—we present the first molecular phylogeny, along with a cladistic analysis of morphological characters. We collected 18S, 28S, and mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of 34 glass sponge species from 27 genera, 9 families, and 3 orders and conducted partitioned Bayesian analyses using RNA secondary structure-specific substitution models (paired-sites models) for stem regions. Bayes factor comparisons of different paired-sites models against each other and conventional (independent-sites) models revealed a significantly better fit of the former but, contrary to previous predictions, the least parameter-rich of the tested paired-sites models provided the best fit to our data. In contrast to Demospongiae and Calcarea, our rDNA phylogeny agrees well with the traditional classification and a previously proposed phylogenetic system, which we ascribe to a more informative morphology in Hexactinellida. We find high support for a close relationship of glass sponges and Demospongiae sensu stricto, though the latter may be paraphyletic with respect to Hexactinellida. Homoscleromorpha appears to be the sister group of Calcarea. Contrary to most previous findings from rDNA, we recover Porifera as monophyletic, although support for this clade is low under paired-sites models.
Phylogeny, Phylogenesis
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
2020-11-06 10:20:17Z
2021-06-30 14:07:51Z

Hexactinosida accepted as Sceptrulophora (additional source)
Rhabdopectella Schmidt, 1880 (taxonomy source)
Rhabdopectella tintinnus Schmidt, 1880 (taxonomy source)
Tretodictyum tubulosum Schulze, 1886 (additional source)
Antarctica East Abyssal Province for Bathydorus spinosus Schulze, 1886 
Antarctica East Abyssal Province for Caulophacus (Caulodiscus) valdiviae Schulze, 1904 
Antarctica East Abyssal Province for Caulophacus (Oxydiscus) weddelli Janussen, Tabachnick & Tendal, 2004 
Arctic Lower Bathyal Province for Caulophacus (Caulophacus) arcticus (Hansen, 1885) 
Bahamian for Iphiteon panicea Bowerbank, 1869 
Bahamian for Rhabdopectella tintinnus Schmidt, 1880 
Celtic Seas for Tretodictyum tubulosum Schulze, 1886  (inaccurate)
Central Kuroshio Current for Crateromorpha (Crateromorpha) meyeri Gray, 1872 
Central Kuroshio Current for Walteria leuckarti Ijima, 1896 
Eastern Galapagos Islands for Aulosaccus mitsukurii Ijima, 1898 
Hawaii for Ijimalophus hawaiicus (Tabachnick & Lévi, 2000) 
New Caledonia for Clathrochone clathroclada (Lévi & Lévi, 1982) 
New Caledonia for Semperella schultzei (Semper, 1868) 
North Atlantic Lower Bathyal Province for Nodastrella asconemaoida Dohrmann, Göcke, Reed & Janussen, 2012 
Northern Galapagos Islands for Heterochone calyx (Schulze, 1886) 
Tristan Gough for Rossella racovitzae Topsent, 1901 
Weddell Sea for Caulophacus (Caulophacella) tenuis Lendenfeld, 1915 
Weddell Sea for Rossella nuda Topsent, 1901 

Awaits re-description. Assignment to Corbitellinae by Tabachnick (2002, Systema Porifera) is a misclassification ... [details]


Awaits re-description. Assignment to Corbitellinae by Tabachnick (2002, Systema Porifera) is a misclassification ... [details]


Molecular and morphological phylogenetic evidence indicate that some genera are more closely related to ... [details]

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