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Xu, Z. z., & Huang, J. q. 2006. On new genus, species and record of Laingiomedusae and Anthomedusae in Fujian coast (Cnidaria, Hydroidomedusae). Journal of Xiamen University Natural Science 45: 233-249.
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In the present paper, samples of medusae were collected by Mindong marine environmental monitoring stations of Fujian in the Fujian coastal waters from the Minnan and Mindong during the May, 2004 to June, 2006. In addition, some samples of medusae collected from the Luoyuan Bay of Fujian and the Datan Bay of Hong Kong during 1987 and 1992. Two new genera, fourteen new species and four new records are described. The two new genera are Jindexiangus (Laingiidae) and Parahydractinia (Hydractiniidae). The new species are: Jindexiangus statocystus, Bougainvillia reticulata, Hydractinia dongsthanensis, H. polytentaculata, H. vacuolata, Parahydractinia sanshaensis, Bythocellata bulbiformis, Leuckartiara zhangraotingae, Hydrocoryne macrogastera, Cladorsarsia gulangensis, Euphysora fujianensis, Pennaria blistera, Ectopleura atentaculata and Hybocodon apiciloculata. New records in China seas are: Lizzia octostyla (Haeckel, 1879), Oceania armata Kolliker, 1810, Moerisia palasia (Derzhavin, 1912) and Sarsia japonica (Nagao, 1962). All type specimens are deposited in the Department of oceanography, Xiamen University. Specific Characteristic of New Genus and New Species Jindexiangus n. gen. Medusae bell margin lobed apparently missing; with 4 exurnbrellar cnidocyst band on umbrellar margin in each interradial position;with 4 marginal bulbs only somewhat displaced toward the exurnbrella, unegual size, in direct connection with circular strand; with 4 peronia-like.unegual size, also arise from the superior half of the marginal bulbs upward towards, completely adnate to the exumbrella; gonad develop on manubrium only, in an interradial position; mouth with 4 prominent, slightly recurved lips with scatted nematocysts; with 8 closed marginal statocysts in adradial position; with 4 narrows radial canals, circular canal present as. solid cord; velum midding broad, so that which systematic position belongs to Laingiomedusae, Laingiidae. Type species: Jindexiangus statocystus. According to Bouillon and Boero (2000), only three genera in Laingiidae are known. The distinguishing characteristics of this new genus with Laingia Bouillon, 1978, Fabienna Schuchert, 1996 and Kantiella Bouillon, 1978 are given in Tab. 1. Jindexiangus statocystus n. sp. (Fig. 1) Medusae with 4 exurnbrellar cnidocyst-bands, papill-shaped, in each interradial position on the exurnbrellar surface above umbrellar margin; with 4 marginal bulbs only somewhat displaced toward the exurnbrella, unegual size of which the two opposite bulb, nearly spherical, large than other two bulbs, nearly oval-like; all marginal bulbs in direct connection with circular strand; 4 short and clubshaped peronia-like, unequal size, arise from the superior half of the marginal bulbs upward towards the exurnbrella; bell margin lobed apparently missing; 4 short and solid marginal tentacles located from the superior half of the marginal bulbs, usually spirality, whole tentacles covered by numerous ring nematocysts; manubrium pyramidal, with a broad, quadrate base, without gastric peduncle, about less half as long as bell cavity; mouth with 4 prominent, slightly recurved lips, margin provided scatted mematocysts; with 4 interradial gonads, very large, mass-like, almost completely, covered wall of manubrium; with 4 narrow, hollow radial canals, circular canal present as solid cord; with 8 closed marginal statocysts in adraridal position, eacth with 1 concretions; velum midding broad. Bougainvillia reticulata n. sp. (Fig. 2) At the present time, only 25 valid species in the Bougainvillia are known (19,24). This new species has gonads on adradial position of stomach, which differs from the other species in this genus, but similar to B. britannia (Forbes, 1841) B. principis (Steenstrup, 1850) B. fulva Agassiz et Mayer, 1899, B. dimorpha Schuchert, 1996 and B . vervoorti Bouillon, 1995. Main characteristics of this new species are; exumbrella with reticular papillae; stomach base with 4 short perradial lobed extension; basal trunk of oral tentacles with very thick and long, divided 2 times; each bulbs wi h 8-9 club-shaped tentacles. These features differs from the similar species of above mention Hydractinia dongshanensis n. sp. (Fig. 5) At the present time, only 13 valid species of medusae in Hydractinia are known (22,24). This new species can easily be distinguished from the other species of Hydractinia by termination of four oral arms with clusters of 6 - 8 single and small branches,each branch with a termixal knob of cnidocysts; munubrium compressed globe-shape, its distance short and narrow, collar- shape; without gastric peduncle and medusa buds; with four marginal tentacles. (See Tab. 2) Hydractinia polytentaculata n. sp. (Fig. 6) This new species is readily distinguished from the other species of Hydractinia by its umbrella without apical projection; mouth with four single and short, unbranched oral arms, each with a large terminal knob cluster of cnidocysts; manubrium with a short gastric peduncle; no medusa buds; about 32 short and stiff equal size marginal tentacles, arise from the suporior half of the tentcular bulbs; no ocelli (See Tab. 2). Hydractinia vacuolata n. sp. (Fig. 7) This new species can easily be distinguished from the other species of Hydractinia by its with a.well developed gastric peduncle; with 4 perradial oral arms, unbranched, each termination with a single, knob-shaped cluster of cnidocysts; with 1 or 2 interradial, elliptic-like gonads on manubrium; without medusa buds; proximal parts of radial cadial and above stomach scattered of highly vacuolated endodermal cells;with 16-20 marginal tentacles; all marginal bulbs,epual size,with adaxial ocelli (See Tab. 2). Parahydractinia n. gen. Medusae manubrium very broad-doliform at distal part,and proximal part of manubriurn fairly extensible, broad and flat, octagonal in cross section,adnate to subumbrella; without gastric peduncle;mouth with 4 oral lips, each elongated to form oral arms armed with terminal clusters of cnidocysts; with 8 very broad radial canals; with 8 solitary, simple, perradial marginal tentacles; all marginal bulbs with abaxial ocelli; gonads interradial on stomach, This new genus without exurnbrellar centripetal canals or marginal cnidocyst ring; gonads on manubrium; mouth lips elongated to form perradial oral arms with one distinct cnidocyst clusters; no oral tentacles; marginal tentacles solidary, no groups, so they belongs to Family Hydractiniidae L. Agassiz, 1862 At present time, the Hydractiniidae comprises four genera (22,24) , i. e. Clavactinia Thornely, 1904; Hydracorella Stechow, 1921; Hydractinia van Beneden, 1841 ; Kinetocodium Kramp, 1921, of which both genera of the former lack a medusa stage, their hydroid being known; both genera of the latter has eumedusoid or medusa stage and hydroid stage. This new is medusa-based genus, their hydroid being unknown, which differs from Hydractinia and Kinetocodium by having 8 very broad radial canal and 8 solitary, perradial marginal tentacles; manubrium very broad doliform at distal part, their proximal part extensible, broad and flat, octagonal in cross section, other distinguishing characteristics of three genera are given in Tab. 3. Type species: Parahydractinia sanshaensis gen. et sp. nov.Parahydractinia sanshaensis gen. et sp. nov. (Fig. 8) Medusa umbrella nearly bell-shaped, scattered cnidocysts on exurnbrella; mesogea thin; manubrium very broad doliform, whole manubrium more than half the length of subumbrellar cavity, and its proximal part fairly exntensible, broad and flat, octagonal in crass section, adnate to subumbrella, about 4/5 of umbrellar cavity width, without gastric peduncle; mouth with 4 simple, perradial oral lips elongated.to form oral arms, short and thick, unbrenched, each terminating armed with clusters of cnidocysts; 4 large, spherical gonads, interradial on stomach with reddish brown pigment; with 8 very broad radial canals, extend down the 8 angles of the stomach into the umbrellar margin, which connect the ring canal; velum medium wide; with 8 salitary, short and stiff, perradial marginal tentacles, its bulbs very large, nearly spherical, whole entacles covered by numerous ring cnidocysts; each tentacle with a large redbrown ocelli on its abaxial side. Leuckartiara zhangraotingae n. sp. (Fig. 11) Main characteristics of this species are: umbrella with a very large, solid globular apical projection; 4 developed marginal tentacles and 4- 5 f iliform rudimentary tentacles in between perradial tentacles, without clasp or adnate to the exurnbrella, all tentacles bulbs none ocelli; 2 adradial series of gonads connected in the uppermost part, without transverse bridges, The closest species is L. hoepplii Hsu, 1924, which also has a large globular apical projection and filiform rudimentary tentacles, though their distinction are; 8 developed marginal tentacles, bulbs without ocelli, 3 filiform rudimentary tentacles in between perradial tentacles, bulbs with ocelli; 2 adradial series of gonads connected with each other by a narrow bridges Hydrocoryne macrogastera n. sp. (Fig. 13) At the present time,only 2 species in the Hydrocoryne is known (25,28). Their distinguisthing characters are; H. miurensis Stechow,1907:exumbrella with scatted nematocyst; with four orange or red perradial pigment patches in manubrium; the interradial position of the subumbrella was slightly projected beneath the umbrellar apex;manubrium funnel-shaped, without gastric peduncle;with 4 interradial gonads; tentacles with scatted round cnidocyst knobs. H. bodegensis Rees, Hand and Mills, 1976: manubrium with a broad and conical peduncle; without perradial pigment patches in manubrium;subunmbrellar projection are only weakly indicated. H. macrogastera n. sp. : the volume of manubriurn very large, pear-shaped, without gastric geduncle, almost occupying the whole subumbrella cavity; without perradial pigment patches in manubrium and interradial subumbrella projection; with 4 short and solid marginal tentacles with 8-10 ring cnidocyst and a small terminal knob. Cladosarsia gulangensis n. sp. (Fig. 14) At present time, only 2 species are known in Cladosarsia (23,24) i. e. Cla. minima Bouillon, 1978 and Cla. papilata Bouillon, 1978; the former has marginal tentacles with 1-2 abaxial pedunculated cnidocyst knobs and very long bifurcating at their end; These features differ from those of the new species, but close to the latter species, which also has a number of abaxial pedunculatad cnidocyst knobs and very short bifurcating distally,though their main distinction are: Cladosarsia papilata : manubrium very long, up to 2 time the bell height; with long and thin proximal part and a cylindrical distal stomach; marginal tentacles straight without bending nearly distal part; with 2 -4 abaxial pedunculated cnidocyst knobs; with ocelli at tentacle base. Cladosarsia gulangensis n. sp. :manubrium short, about 2/5 the lengh of subumbrella cavity; marginal tentacles on slightly bending near the distal part;with 7-10 abaxial pedunculated cnidocyst knobs at uper and below of bending in several sides;no ocelli at tentacle base. Euphysora fuflanensis n. sp. (Fig. 16) At present time,only 20 species in Euphysora is known (20,21). This new species with moniliform principal tentacle is similar to E. gracilis (Brooks, l8k),E. annulata Kramp, 1928,E. russelli Hamon, 1974,E. solidonema Huang, 1999 and E. taiwanensis Xu et Huang, 2003, but main distinguishing charaters of this new species are: nearly proximal part of moniliform principal tentacle very stout,with 4-5 ring cnidocysts, other whole tentacles thin and long with over to 16 spherical cnidocyst knobs,without large terimnal cnidocyst knob; the bulbs of principal tentacle larger than other three rudimentary bulbs, all tentacula bulbs with pigment spots; manubriurn narrow and long,exceeding beyond the bell opening;the upside with rounded apical chamber,their downside connects to upside of manubrium closely; gonad encircling in the medial position of manubrium, scattered numerous egg cells on the gonads. These features differs from the similar species of above mention (See Tab. 4). Pennaria blistera n. sp. (Fig. 17) This new species has reduced medusae, without tentacles, ut with 4 rudimentary bulbs and 4 radial canals. so it belongs to Pennaria Goldfuss, 1820. At present time, only 8 valid species in the Pennaria are known (24). This new species can easily be distinguished from all other species of Pennaria by exurnbrella with blister-like protrusion; with a short gastric peduncle in the base part of manubrium; with 4 rudimentary bulbs, epual size, its, uppermost grasping around bell margin; no ocelli; with a number of deep-brown granules in entoderm of radial canals. Ectopleura atentaculata n. sp. (Fig. 18) This new species with 8 longitudinal exurnbrella cniolocyst tracks; with a circular mouth; with 4 radial canals; with 4 marginal bulbs, placing this medusa in the genus Ectopleura L, Agassiz, 1862. At present time. only 21species in the Ectopleura medusa are known (24,26). This new species differs from all other medusa-producing of Ectopleura, in having 4 perradial marginal bulbs, none developing tentacles; mouth rim with a whorl row of spherical cnidocyst clusters; manubrium with a number of medusae buds. Hybocodon apiciloculata n. sp. (Fig. 19) At present time,only 6 valid species in the Hybocodon are known (27). This new species differs from other species of Hybocodon, in having 4 perradial marginal bulbs, without developing tentacles, but close to the H. atentaculatus Uchida 1947, which also without tentacles; though their main distinction are: H, atentaculata: umbrella globular, very thick wall, subumbrellar cavity very small; a short cnidocyst band from base of longest radial canal tapering upwards on exumbrella;manubrium without gastric peduncle and apical chamber. H. apiciloculata: umbrella nearly bell, very thin jelly, subumbrellar cavity very broad; with 8 longitudinal cnidocyst trakcs on the exurnbrella, issuing in pairs f rom the four marginl bulbs, extending almost to apex; with a small;ovaliform cnidocyst clusters situated on one side of large marginal bulb, and connected to the cnidocyst track on exumbrella; manubrium with short gastric peduncle and nearly elliptic-like apical chamber.
East Pacific
Systematics, Taxonomy
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