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Harmelin, J.-G.; Boury-Esnault, N.; Vacelet, J. (1994). A bryozoan-sponge symbiosis: the association between Smittina cervicomis and Halisarca cf. dujardini in the Mediterranean. in: P.J. Hayward, J.S. Ryland & P.D. Taylor (eds). Biology and Palaeobiology of Bryozoans. pp 69-74.
Harmelin, J.-G.; Boury-Esnault, N.; Vacelet, J.
A bryozoan-sponge symbiosis: the association between <i>Smittina cervicomis</i> and <i>Halisarca cf. dujardini</i> in the Mediterranean. <i>in</i>: P.J. Hayward, J.S. Ryland & P.D. Taylor (eds). Biology and Palaeobiology of Bryozoans. pp 69-74
In: Hayward, P.J., Ryland, J.S., & Taylor, P.D., (editors), Biology and Palaeobiology of Bryozoans: 69- 74. Olsen & Olsen, Fredensborg
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In the NW Mediterranean, the large adeoniform ascophoran Smittina cervicomis is regularly overgrown by a skeleton-free Demospongiae, Halisarca cf. dujardini. This association concerns most colonies in a wide range of rocky and sandy habitats (15-65 rn). On the other hand, this sponge was never observed on the other syntopic rigidly erect bryozoans. The sponge forms a thin sheath which borders the orifices and covers the growing tips of the bryozoan, apparently without affecting the lophophore protrusion and colony growth. Zooidal dimensions are larger on Halisarca-coated branches, especially the length and width of the autozooids (+16 %) and the height of the lateral peristomes (+63 Oh). The Halisarca coating does not preclude overgrowth by other epibionts. The morphological organization of the sponge on the Smittina branches suggests mutualistic relationships based on cooperative feeding currents.
Mediterranean Sea in general