WoRMS source details

Petersen, K.W., 1990. Evolution and taxonomy in capitate hydroids and medusae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Zool. Journ. Linn. Soc. 100 2: 101-231.
33362
Publication
Available for editors  PDF available [request]
A cladistic analysis of Capitata groups the families in four suborders based on medusa characters (such as manubrium morphology, position of gonads, and position and number of marginal tentacles) and hydroid characters (such as presence or absence of an oral tentacle whorl, and the different development of the tentacles of the oral and aboral whorls). On the family and generic levels, the revision results in changes which unite the separate hydroid and medusa taxonomic systems, defining genera which are not based on characters solely relating to the reduction of medusae to fixed gonophores. In those families where the reduction of the medusa can be analysed, it is shown that the reduction occcurred after all synapomorphies defining the genera had evolved and usually affected individual species within a genus rather than the original species from which the other species in the genus evolved. This supports the view that medusa reduction is not in itself a valid generic character. A discussion of the theories of 'inconsistent' or 'mosaic' evolution concludes that no difference in evolutionary rate or degree of specialization can be demonstrated among taxa with free medusae and taxa with gonophores. figs. 1-49. Descriptors: Ectopleura americana, Ectopleura indica, Ectopleura mayeri, Ralpharia gorgoniae, Ralpharia neira, Tubularia acadiae, Zyzzyzus calderi, Zyzzyzus floridanus, Zyzzyzus robustus
Evolution
Systematics, Taxonomy
Date
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z
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Coryne prolifera (Forbes, 1848) accepted as Codonium proliferum (Forbes, 1848) (basis of record)
Ectopleura americana Peterson, 1990 (original description)
Ectopleura indica Petersen, 1990 (original description)
Ectopleura mayeri Petersen, 1990 (original description)
Euphysidae Haeckel, 1879 accepted as Corymorphidae Allman, 1872 (source of synonymy)
Euphysora Maas, 1905 accepted as Corymorpha M. Sars, 1835 (source of synonymy)
Moerisia gemmata (Ritchie, 1915) (basis of record)
Moerisia gemmata (Ritchie, 1915) (new combination reference)
Ralpharia gorgoniae Petersen, 1990 (original description)
Ralpharia neira Petersen, 1990 (original description)
Ralpharia parasitica (Korotneff, 1887) (redescription)
Ralpharia sanctisebastiani (Da Silveira & Migotto, 1984) (redescription)
Sphaerocoryne coccometra (Bigelow, 1909) (additional source)
Tubularia acadiae Petersen, 1990 (original description)
Tubularia amoyensis (Hargitt, 1927) (new combination reference)
Zyzzyzus floridanus Petersen, 1990 (original description)
Zyzzyzus robustus Petersen, 1990 (original description)
Cape Farewell for Zyzzyzus robustus Petersen, 1990 
Indonesian Exclusive Economic Zone for Ralpharia neira Petersen, 1990 
Xiamen for Tubularia amoyensis (Hargitt, 1927) 
 Biology

Gonophores are sessile sporosacs or medusoids [details]

 Biology

Medusa abortive; male released, female retained on lastostyle; bell 1.1 mm high and 0.85 mm wide.  [details]

 Reproduction

Gonophores are free, short-lived medusae without tentacles. [details]

 Reproduction

Gonophores are sporosacs [details]

 Reproduction

Gonophores are likely free medusae. [details]

 Reproduction

Gonophores are fixed sporosacs. [details]

 Reproduction

Gonophores are fixed sporosacs. [details]

 Status

Likely a synonym of Teissieridae [details]

 Status

Petersen (1990: 196), synonym of T. indivisa. [details]