WoRMS source details
Rocha, R. M.; Kremer, L.; Fehlauer-Ale, K. (2012). Lack of COI variation for Clavelina oblonga (Tunicata, Ascidiacea) in Brazil: Evidence for its human-mediated transportation?. Aquatic Invasions. 7(3): 419-424.
Rocha, R. M.; Kremer, L.; Fehlauer-Ale, K.
Lack of COI variation for Clavelina oblonga (Tunicata, Ascidiacea) in Brazil: Evidence for its human-mediated transportation?
Recent studies indicate that ascidians are efficiently dispersed by human transport. We have chosen the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) to address whether Clavelina oblonga is an introduced species in the Brazilian coast. Colonies of C. oblonga were sampled in different localities along Atlantic coasts of USA, Panama, and Brazil. The sequencing of 92 colonies resulted in three haplotypes for the species, two unique to Florida and the other shared by exemplars collected in Brazil and Panama; the latter haplotype is identical to the published sequence of Azores. Our evidence, including the absence of C. oblonga in the country’s northern tropical waters, its association with artificial habitats and lack of COI variation suggest that the species has been introduced in the southeastern and southern Brazilian coasts. Previous records (85 years old) suggest that it could be a relatively long-term introduction
Atlantic Ocean (without specification)
Genetics (Generalities), Breeding