WoRMS taxon details

Phylo Kinberg, 1866

129421  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:129421)

accepted
Genus
Phylo felix Kinberg, 1866 (type by monotypy)
Species Phylo capensis Day, 1961
Species Phylo felix Kinberg, 1866
Species Phylo fimbriata (Moore, 1903)
Species Phylo foetida (Claparède, 1868)
Species Phylo grubei (McIntosh, 1910)
Species Phylo heterochaeta Sun, Yu & Li, 2021
Species Phylo kubbarensis Mohammad, 1980
Species Phylo kupfferi (Ehlers, 1874)
Species Phylo kuwaitica Mohammad, 1970
Species Phylo norvegica (M. Sars in G.O. Sars, 1872)
Species Phylo novazealandiae Day, 1977
Species Phylo nuda (Moore, 1911)
Species Phylo ornata (Verrill, 1873)
Species Phylo paraornata Blake, 2021

Species Phylo heterochaetus Sun, Yu & Li, 2021 accepted as Phylo heterochaeta Sun, Yu & Li, 2021 (mandatory gender agreement requires 'heterochaeta')
Species Phylo latreilli [Auctt.] accepted as Orbinia latreillii (Audouin & H Milne Edwards, 1833) (misspelling)
Species Phylo minima (Hartmann-Schröder & Rosenfeldt, 1990) accepted as Phylo felix Kinberg, 1866 (superseded subsequent combination of subjective synonym)
Species Phylo norvegicus (M. Sars in G.O. Sars, 1872) accepted as Phylo norvegica (M. Sars in G.O. Sars, 1872) (spelling error, as Phylo is feminine, and changing the species suffix to masculine is incorrect )
Species Phylo nudus (Moore, 1911) accepted as Phylo nuda (Moore, 1911) (spelling error, as Phylo is feminine, and changing the species suffix to masculine is incorrect)
Species Phylo ornatus (Verrill, 1873) accepted as Phylo ornata (Verrill, 1873) (spelling error, as Phylo is feminine, and changing the species suffix to masculine is incorrect)
Species Phylo paraornatus Blake, 2021 accepted as Phylo paraornata Blake, 2021 (mandatory gender agreement requires a spelling of the adjectival compound word as 'paraornata' rather than 'paraornatus' to agree with feminine genus Phylo)
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
recent only
feminine
Kinberg, J. G. H. (1866). Annulata Nova. Continuatio. [various errantia & sedentaria]. <em>Öfversigt af Königlich Vetenskapsakademiens förhandlingar, Stockholm.</em> 22(4): 239-258., available online at https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/32339515
page(s): 251 [details]   
Etymology Phylo is named after a maid of Helen of Troy. As recorded in Latin-script translations of Homer's Odyssey, an epic poem...  
Etymology Phylo is named after a maid of Helen of Troy. As recorded in Latin-script translations of Homer's Odyssey, an epic poem composed near the end of the 8th century BC, Phylo is a maid of Helen of Troy, mentioned at least twice in the text. Therefore Phylo is a feminine given name of classical Greece, although occurrences of it are rare. A male equivalent of the period would be Phyleus, son of Augeas. A male name transliterated as 'Philo' also exists.The other usual meaning of phylo- as a stem in modern science discourse is based on usages that post date Kinberg. Phylo- as a stem comes ultimately from transliterated Greek 'phyle' or 'phylon' meaning 'race' or 'tribe', which have spellings which don't exactly match 'phylo', and most significantly the word phylum was not known at the time Kinberg wrote (it was a term coined that year in 1866). An etymology from the historic Greek personal feminine name fits well with the mode of derivation of a large number of Kinberg names from names of mythical or real people featuring in classical sources. Kinberg liked using people names from ancient Greece, but we don't know how he found them. Perhaps he had a classical name dictionary. [details]

Nomenclature  Phylo is a feminine genus name (see etymology) but it appears that Hartman (1957) subsequently assumed that Phylo was...  
Nomenclature  Phylo is a feminine genus name (see etymology) but it appears that Hartman (1957) subsequently assumed that Phylo was masculine as she changed some endings in recombinations to masculine, although she gives no comment on this in her remarks on the genus. Such enigmatic changes without explanation, presumed correct by subsequent taxonomists, were not unusual practice, but give rise to later problems when examined critically. Hartman had formal taxonomy descriptions of three recombined names that she newly gave masculine endings to as Phylo nudus, P. fimbriatus, and P. ornatus. In her key she also had P. norvegicus (from norvegica), but for unknown reasons she did not change P. foetida to P. foetidus, although 'foetidus' is in taxa names elsewhere accepted as the masculine spelling. Hartman (1959: 367) in the catalogue checklist listed with masculine suffixes the four recombined names mentioned above. Of later names Phylo foetida typica Eisig, 1914, Phylo felix heterosetosa Hartmann-Schröder, 1965, and perhaps Phylo kuwaitica Mohammad, 1970 are original names created as feminine, but Phylo paraornatus Blake, 2021 and Phylo heterochaetus Sun, Yu & Li, 2021 were created as masculine. [details]
Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2022). World Polychaeta Database. Phylo Kinberg, 1866. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=129421 on 2022-08-15
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2006-07-17 10:41:03Z
changed
2006-09-27 07:06:07Z
changed
Martinez, Olga
2007-08-03 23:39:31Z
changed
2008-03-04 10:31:00Z
changed
2008-03-26 11:36:43Z
changed
2013-01-11 00:49:33Z
changed
2018-09-12 23:29:08Z
changed
2018-09-14 02:56:17Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description Kinberg, J. G. H. (1866). Annulata Nova. Continuatio. [various errantia & sedentaria]. <em>Öfversigt af Königlich Vetenskapsakademiens förhandlingar, Stockholm.</em> 22(4): 239-258., available online at https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/32339515
page(s): 251 [details]   

taxonomy source Hartman, Olga. (1948). The marine annelids erected by Kinberg. With some notes on some other types in the Swedish State Museum. <em>Arkiv för Zoologi.</em> 42(1): 1-137, & plates 1-18.
page(s): 105; note: Hartman re-examines the specimen lot of Phylo felix, the type species, and gives her own diagnosis of the genus [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

taxonomy source Hartman, Olga. (1957). Orbiniidae, Apistobranchidae, Paraonidae and Longosomidae. <em>Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions.</em> 15(3): 211-393., available online at https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/4160176 [details]   

additional source Fauchald, K. (1977). The polychaete worms, definitions and keys to the orders, families and genera. <em>Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County: Los Angeles, CA (USA), Science Series.</em> 28:1-188., available online at http://www.vliz.be/imisdocs/publications/123110.pdf [details]   

additional source Bellan, G. (2001). Polychaeta, <i>in</i>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. <em>Collection Patrimoines Naturels.</em> 50: 214-231. (look up in IMIS)
note: checklist listing [details]   

additional source Neave, Sheffield Airey. (1939-1996). Nomenclator Zoologicus vol. 1-10 Online. [developed by uBio, hosted online at MBLWHOI Library]., available online at http://ubio.org/NomenclatorZoologicus/ [details]   

additional source Day, J. H. (1967). [Sedentaria] A monograph on the Polychaeta of Southern Africa. Part 2. Sedentaria. British Museum (Natural History), London. pp. 459–842., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/8596  [details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
From editor or global species database
Diagnosis ORBINIINAE with pointed prostomium and branchiae first present from chaetiger 5-7. Posterior thoracic parapodia with several accessory papillae; numerous ventral papillae present. At least five papillae in combined total present on a segment. Thoracic neurochaetae include crenulated capillaries, heavy hooks and heavy spearshaped chaetae.

Hartman (1948) diagnosed the genus as follows: "This genus has affinities with Orbinia Quatrefages (= Aricia Audouin & Edwards) and differs from it most conspicuously in that posterior thoracic segments have large epithelial glands that are associated with special modified spines; they are located in the upper anterior parts of neuropodia." Later Pettibone (1963) characterised this statement as an emendment of the genus. [details]

Etymology Phylo is named after a maid of Helen of Troy. As recorded in Latin-script translations of Homer's Odyssey, an epic poem composed near the end of the 8th century BC, Phylo is a maid of Helen of Troy, mentioned at least twice in the text. Therefore Phylo is a feminine given name of classical Greece, although occurrences of it are rare. A male equivalent of the period would be Phyleus, son of Augeas. A male name transliterated as 'Philo' also exists.The other usual meaning of phylo- as a stem in modern science discourse is based on usages that post date Kinberg. Phylo- as a stem comes ultimately from transliterated Greek 'phyle' or 'phylon' meaning 'race' or 'tribe', which have spellings which don't exactly match 'phylo', and most significantly the word phylum was not known at the time Kinberg wrote (it was a term coined that year in 1866). An etymology from the historic Greek personal feminine name fits well with the mode of derivation of a large number of Kinberg names from names of mythical or real people featuring in classical sources. Kinberg liked using people names from ancient Greece, but we don't know how he found them. Perhaps he had a classical name dictionary. [details]

Grammatical gender Feminine, but usages exist that assume without explanation that Phylo is masculine. Most likely named after Phylo, a classical Greece female name in Homer. There are no male personal name usages to be found from that period that are transliterated as 'Phylo'. There are several classical Greece female names ending in 'o' rather than the more usual 'a'. Thus there is no reason considering the word alone as a personal name to think Phylo is other than feminine. The secondary way to decide a genus gender is to examine the epithet combined with it. Kinberg combined Phylo with the adjective (or rarely a noun) felix, which means happy or fortunate (for instance Arabia felix was a term used for the flourishing fertile part of Arabia, now Yemen), and as an adjective has the same ending whether masculine or feminine. While Felix as a noun is a masculine given name used from Roman times, Kinberg would not have used the word as a noun resulting in two personal name nouns together without any logical reason for the choice. However, the presence of the word felix may have wrongly suggested masculinity for the genus gender to later workers such as Hartman, as they were most familiar with Felix used as a male name (the popular cartoon character from the 1920s 'Felix the cat' was male!). Alternatively there may have been a belief female Greek names could not end in 'o' (they can). There are no other contemporary 19thC authors who created original names in Phylo that can be used as guidance, but some older recombinations come from the feminine genera Aricia and Orbinia where they had appropriate feminine endings, but Hartman (1957) changed them to masculine in Phylo[details]

Nomenclature  Phylo is a feminine genus name (see etymology) but it appears that Hartman (1957) subsequently assumed that Phylo was masculine as she changed some endings in recombinations to masculine, although she gives no comment on this in her remarks on the genus. Such enigmatic changes without explanation, presumed correct by subsequent taxonomists, were not unusual practice, but give rise to later problems when examined critically. Hartman had formal taxonomy descriptions of three recombined names that she newly gave masculine endings to as Phylo nudus, P. fimbriatus, and P. ornatus. In her key she also had P. norvegicus (from norvegica), but for unknown reasons she did not change P. foetida to P. foetidus, although 'foetidus' is in taxa names elsewhere accepted as the masculine spelling. Hartman (1959: 367) in the catalogue checklist listed with masculine suffixes the four recombined names mentioned above. Of later names Phylo foetida typica Eisig, 1914, Phylo felix heterosetosa Hartmann-Schröder, 1965, and perhaps Phylo kuwaitica Mohammad, 1970 are original names created as feminine, but Phylo paraornatus Blake, 2021 and Phylo heterochaetus Sun, Yu & Li, 2021 were created as masculine. [details]