WoRMS taxon details

Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, 1935

100906  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:100906)

accepted
Species
Nematostella pellucida Crowell, 1946 · unaccepted (Synonym)
marine, brackish, terrestrial
Stephenson, T. A. (1935). The British Sea Anemones. Volume II. <em>The Ray Society. London.</em> pp. 426.
page(s): 44-52 [details]   
Note Type species of *Nematostella* by original...  
From other sources
Type species Type species of *Nematostella* by original designation. [details]
Distribution European arctic to Cape Cod.   
Distribution European arctic to Cape Cod.  [details]
Rodríguez, E.; Fautin, D; Daly, M. (2022). World List of Actiniaria. Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, 1935. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: https://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=100906 on 2022-09-25
Date
action
by
2004-12-21 15:54:05Z
created
2008-01-28 06:47:01Z
changed
2009-09-15 08:51:01Z
checked
2015-10-13 10:34:41Z
changed

Creative Commons License The webpage text is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


original description Stephenson, T. A. (1935). The British Sea Anemones. Volume II. <em>The Ray Society. London.</em> pp. 426.
page(s): 44-52 [details]   

original description  (of Nematostella pellucida Crowell, 1946) Crowell, S. (1946). A new sea anemone for Woods Hole, Massachusetts. <em>Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences.</em> 36, 57-60., available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/39697843#page/69/mode/1up
page(s): 58 [details]   

context source (Introduced species) Fofonoff, P.W.; Ruiz, G.M.; Steves, B.; Carlton, J.T. (2014). National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS), available online at http://invasions.si.edu/nemesis [details]   

context source (Hexacorallia) Fautin, Daphne G. (2013). Hexacorallians of the World. (look up in IMIS[details]   

basis of record van der Land, J.; den Hartog, J.H. (2001). Actiniaria, <B><I>in</I></B>: Costello, M.J. <i>et al.</i> (Ed.) (2001). <i>European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,</i> 50: pp. 106-109 (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Bromley, J.E.C., and J.S. Bleakney. (1984). Keys to the fauna and flora of Minas Basin. National Research Council of Canada Report 24119. 366 p.  [details]   

additional source Gosner, K. L. (1971). Guide to identification of marine and estuarine invertebrates: Cape Hatteras to the Bay of Fundy. <em>John Wiley & Sons, Inc., London.</em> 693 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Pollock, L.W. (1998). A practical guide to the marine animals of northeastern North America. Rutgers University Press. New Brunswick, New Jersey & London. 367 pp., available online at http://books.google.com/books?id=i1AmT31cuR4C  [details]   

additional source Sebens, K.P. 1998. Marine flora and fauna of the eastern United States. Anthozoa, Actinaria, Corallimorparia, Ceriantharia, and Zoanthidea. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 141. 68 p. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Streftaris, N.; Zenetos, A.; Papathanassiou, E. (2005). Globalisation in marine ecosystems: the story of non-indigenous marine species across European seas. <em>Oceanogry and Marine Biology: an Annual Review.</em> 43: 419-453. (look up in IMIS[details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Hamond, R. & B.G. Williams, 1977. The Ctenophora, Scyphozoa and Anthozoa of Norfolk, with additional notes on the Hydrozoa. Trans. Norfolk Norwich Nat. Soc. 24 : 58-74..
page(s): 61 [details]   

additional source Britton, J.C. & B. Morton, 1989. Shore ecology of the Gulf of Mexico : i-viii, 1-387.
page(s): 184, 344 [details]   

additional source Williams, R.B., 1975. The significance of saline lagoons as refuges for rare species. Trans. Norfolk Norwich Nat. Soc. 22 6: 387-392.
page(s): 388-391 [details]   

additional source Bromley, J. E. C.; Bleakney, J. S. (1979). Taxonomic Survey of Benthic Fauna in Estuarine Saltmarsh Pools, Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy. <em>Proceedings of the Nova Scotia Institute of Science.</em> 29: 411-446.
page(s): 416, 419, 423, 438, 440, 442, 444, 446 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Heard, R.W. (1982). Guide to common tidal marsh invertebrates of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. <em>Ocean Springs, Mississippi, Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium.</em> volume MASGP-79-004, pp. 82.
page(s): 3 [details]   

additional source Sanders, H. L., Mangelsdorf, P. C., Jr. and Hampson, G. R. 1965. Salinity and Faunal Distribution in the Pocasset River, Massachusetts. Limnology and Oceanography 10: 216.
page(s): 222 [details]   

additional source Fautin, D. G.; Daly, M. (2009). Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia, and Zoanthidea (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 349-357. <em>in: Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico-Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity.</em> A&M University Press, College Station, Texas., available online at http://biogomx.net/sites/default/files/pdfs/chapters/15-Fautin%20and%20Daly%202009-Actinians%20of%20the%20GoMx.pdf [details]   

additional source Moehrlen, F., Maniura, M., Plickert, G., Frohme, M., & Frank, U. 2006. Evolution of astacin-like metalloproteases in animals and their function in development. Evolution and Development 8: 223-231.
page(s): 223, 224, 225, 229, 230 [details]   

additional source Pax, F. (1936). Anthozoa. In: G. Grimpe & E. Wagler (eds.). Die Tierwelt der Nord- und Ostsee. Bd. IIIe. Akad. Verlagsges., Becker & Erler, Leipzig. 317 pp.
page(s): 92 [details]   

additional source Hand, C. (1957). Another sea anemone from California and the types of certain Californian anemones. <em>Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences.</em> 47(12): 411-414., available online at http://biostor.org/reference/134287
page(s): 411-413 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Hand, C.; Uhlinger, K. R. (1994). The Unique, Widely Distributed, Estuarine Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis Stephenson: A Review, New Facts, and Questions. Estuaries. 17(2): 501-508., available online at http://www.jstor.org/stable/1352679
page(s): 501-507 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Sheader, M.; Suwailem, A. M.; Rowe, G. A. (1997). The anemone, Nematostella vectensis, in Britain: considerations for conservation management. <em>Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems.</em> 7(1): 13-25., available online at https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1099-0755(199703)7:1<13::aid-aqc210>3.3.co;2-p
page(s): 13-25 [details]   

additional source Silva, Janine F.; Lima, Carlos A. C.; Perez, Carlos D.; Gomes, Paula B. (2010) First record of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae) in Southern Hemisphere waters, Zootaxa 2343: 66-68
page(s): 66-67 [details]   

additional source Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). , available online at http://www.itis.gov [details]   

additional source Fautin, Daphne G. (2013). Hexacorallians of the World. (look up in IMIS[details]   

additional source Lauretta, D.; Häussermann, V.; Brugler, M. R.; Rodríguez, E. (2013). Isoparactis fionae sp. nov. (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from Southern Patagonia with a discussion of the family Isanthidae. <em>Organisms Diversity & Evolution.</em> 14(1): 31-42., available online at https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-013-0149-z
page(s): 33 [details]   

additional source Davis G.M., Mazurkiewicz M. & Mandracchia M. (1982). <i>Spurwinkia</i>: Morphology, systematics, and ecology of a new genus of North American marshland Hydrobiidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda). <em>Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.</em> 134: 143-177.
page(s): 148 [details]   

additional source Manuel, R. L. (1981). British Anthozoa. <em>London: Academic Press.</em> 241 pp. (Synopses of the British Fauna).
page(s): 193-194 [details]   

additional source Carlgren, O. (1949). A survey of the Ptychodactiaria, Corallimorpharia and Actiniaria. <em>Kungliga Svenska Vet- enskapsakadamiens Handlingar.</em> 1: 1–121.
page(s): 26 [details]   

additional source Fell, P.E.; Olmstead, N.C.; Carlson, E.; Jacob, W.; Hitchcock, D.; Silber, G. (1982). Distribution and Abundance of Macroinvertebrates on Certain Connecticut Tidal Marshes, with Emphasis on Dominant Molluscs. <em>Estuaries.</em> 5(3): 234-239., available online at https://doi.org/10.2307/1351841
page(s): 235 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Bleakney, J. S.; Meyer, K. B. (1979). Observations on Salt Marsh Pools Minas Basin Nova-Scotia Canada 1965-1977. Proceedings of the Nova Scotian Institute of Science, 29(4): 353-372, available online at http://dalspace.library.dal.ca/handle/10222/13956
page(s): 365 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available [request] 

additional source Manuel, R. L. (1981). On the identity of the sea anemone Scolanthus callimorphus Gosse, 1853 (Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae). Journal of Natural History, 15, 265-276
page(s): 265 [details]   

additional source Sebens, K. P. (1998). Anthozoa: Actiniaria, Zoanthidea, Corallimorpharia, and Ceriantharia. National Marine Fisheries Service. Seattle., volume 141, pp. 1-67
page(s): 10, 14, 26, 50 [details]   

additional source Williams, R. B. (1983). Starlet sea anemone. IUCN Invertebrate Red Data Book, 43-46
page(s): 43-46 [details]   

additional source Mathew, K. (1979). Studies on the biology of a sea anemone, Anthopleura nigrescens (Verrill) from the south west coast of India. Bulletin of the Department of Marine Sciences, University of Cochin, 10, 75-158
page(s): 111 [details]   

additional source Carlgren, O. (1945). Further contributions to the knowledge of the cnidom in the Anthozoa especially in the Actiniaria. Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapets Handlingar, 56, N.F., (9): 1-24
page(s): 4 [details]   

additional source Kneib, R. T. (1991). Indirect effects in experimental studies of marine soft-sediment communities. American Zoologist, 31, 874-885
page(s): 878-881, Table 2 [details]   

additional source Fautin, D. G.; Kozloff, E. N.; Siebert, A. E. (1987). Phylum Cnidaria - Class Anthozoa. University of Washington Press. Seattle and London., pp. 68-78
page(s): 73, 77 [details]   

additional source Williams, R. B. (1987). The current status of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis in England. Transactions of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalist's Society, 27, 5, 371-374
page(s): 371, 373 [details]   

additional source Hand, C. H.; Uhlinger, K. R. (1992). The culture, sexual and asexual reproduction, and growth of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Biological Bulletin, 182, 169-176
page(s): 169, 170, 173, 174, 175 [details]   

additional source Hand, C. H.; Uhlinger, K. R. (1995). Asexual reproduction by transverse fission and some anomalies in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Invertebrate Biology, 114(1): 9-18
page(s): 9, 10, 15, 16, 17 [details]   

additional source Kneib, R. T. (1985). Predation and disturbance by grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio Holthuis, in soft-substratum benthic invertebrate assemblages. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 93, 91-102
page(s): 91, 95, 98 [details]   

additional source Kneib, R. T. (1988). Testing for indirect effects of predation in an interidal soft-bottom community. Ecology, 69, 6, 1795-1805
page(s): 1801, 1802 [details]   

additional source Williams, R. B. (2003). Locomotory behaviour and functional morphology of Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae): a contribution to a comparative study of burrowing behaviour in athenarian sea anemones. Zoologische Verhandelingen, 345, 437-484
page(s): 437, 440-441, 445-455, 457-464, 466-480, Figures 2-14, Tables 1-14 [details]   

additional source Haskin, H. H.; Ray, G. (1979). Estuarine evaluation study: benthic invertebrates. Four year report, 1973-1977. Klaus Rützler and Ian G. Macintyre (eds.). Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington
page(s): 4.239, 4.275 [details]   

additional source Jensen, L. D. (1974). Environmental responses to thermal discharges from the Indian River Station, Indian River, Delaware. Electric Power Research Institute. Palo Alto., pp. 205.
page(s): 112, 184, 188, 195 [details]   

additional source Robson, E. A. (1957). A sea-anemone from brackish water. Nature (London), 179, 787-788
page(s): 787-788 [details]   

additional source Daly, M.; Lipscomb, D. L.; Allard, M. W. (2002). A simple test: evaluating explanations for the relative simplicity of the Edwardsiidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Evolution, 56(3): 502-510
page(s): 503, 505, 506, 507, fig. 1, fig. 2, fig. 3 [details]   

additional source Lindsay, J. A. (1975). A salt marsh anemone. Marine Aquarist, 6, 43-48
page(s): 43, 45, 46, 47 [details]   

additional source Ates, R. M. L. (1997). Bloemdieren: De Zeeanemonen En Hun Verwanten Van De Nederlandse Kust. C. Moerman. Zeeanjer., pp. 31.
page(s): 27 [details]   

additional source Daly, M. (2002). A systematic revision of Edwardsiidae (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Invertebrate Biology, 121(3): 212-225
page(s): 214-217, 221, 223 [details]   

additional source Pearson, C. V. M., Rogers, A. D.; Sheader, M. (2002). The genetic structure of the rare lagoonal sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis Stephenson (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) in the United Kingdom based on RAPD analysis. Molecular Ecology, 11, 2285-2293
page(s): 2285-2290, 2292-2293 [details]   

additional source Daly, M. (2002). Taxonomy, anatomy, and histology of the lined sea anemone, Edwardsiella lineata (Verrill, 1873) (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Edwardsiidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 115(4): 868-877
page(s): 875 [details]   

additional source Williams, R. B. (2000). Measurements of cnidae from sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria), III: ranges and other measures of statistical dispersion, their interrelations and taxonomic relevance. Scientia Marina, 64(1): 49-68
page(s): 49-68 [details]   

additional source Williams, R. B. (1996). Measurements of cnidae from sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria): statistical parameters and taxonomic relevance. Scientia Marina, 60(2-3): 339-351
page(s): 339, 343, 346 [details]   

additional source Williams, R. B. (1991). Nematostella vectensis. Joint Nature Conservation Committee., volume 3. Invertebrates other than insects, pp. 32-33
page(s): 32-33 [details]   

additional source Williams, R. B. (1973). Euplotes alatus, a hypotrichous ciliate new to Great Britain. Transactions of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalist's Society, 22(6): 383-386
page(s): 383, 385 [details]   

additional source Williams, R. B. (1988). The current status of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis in England -- a correction. Transactions of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalist's Society, 28, 50
page(s): 50 [details]   

additional source Tiwary, B. K.; Li, W. H. (2009). Parallel evolution between aromatase and androgen receptor in the animal kingdom. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 26(1): 123-129
page(s): 123 [details]   

additional source Acuña, F. H.; Excoffon, A. C.; Griffiths, C. L. (2004). First record and redescription of the introduced sea anemone Sagartia ornata (Holdsworth, 1855) (Cnidaria: Actiniaria: Sagartiidae) from South Africa. African Zoology, 39(2): 314-318
page(s): 317 [details]   

additional source Frank, P. G.; Bleakney, J. S. (1978). Asexual reproduction, diet, and anomalies of the anemone Nematostella vectensis in Nova Scotia. Canadian Field-naturalist, 92, 259-262
page(s): 259-262 [details]   

additional source Darling, J. A.; Reitzel, A. M.; Finnerty, J. R. (2004). Regional population structure of a widely iIntroduced estuarine invertebrate: Nematostella vectensis Stephenson in New England. Molecular Ecology, 13, 10, 2969-2981
page(s): 2969-2979 [details]   

additional source Darling, J. A.; Reitzel, A. M.; Burton, P. M.; Mazza, M. E.; Ryan, J. F.; Sullivan, J. C.; Finnerty, J. R. (2005). Rising starlet: the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. BioEssays, 27(2): 211-221
page(s): 211, 213, 219 [details]   

additional source Olmstead, N. C.; Fell, P. E. (1978). Estuarine animals. Nancy C. Olmstead (eds.). The Connecticut Arboretum. New London, Connecticut, pp. 12-44
page(s): 18 [details]   

additional source Moran, Y.; Gurevitz, M. (2006). When positive selection of neurotoxin genes is missing: the riddle of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. FEBS Journal, 273(17): 3886-3892
page(s): 3886, 3887, 3888, 3889, 3890 [details]   

additional source Matus, D. Q.; Pang, K.; Daly, M.; Martindale, M. Q. (2007). Expression of Pax gene family members in the anthozoan cnidarian, Nematostella vectensis. Evolution & Development, 9(1): 25-38
page(s): 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 35, 36, 37 [details]   

additional source Scott, A.; Harrison, P. L. (2008). Larval settlement and juvenile development of sea anemones that provide habitat for anemonefish. Marine Biology, 154(5): 833-839
page(s): 838 [details]   

additional source Pang, K.; Matus, D. Q.; Martindale, M. Q. (2004). The ancestral role of COE genes may have been in chemoreception: evidence from the development of the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Anthozoa). Development, Genes and Evolution, 214, 134-138
page(s): 134-137 [details]   

additional source Fritzenwanker, J. H.; Genikhovich, G.; Kraus, Y.; Technau, U. (2007). Early development and axis specification in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Developmental Biology, 310, 264-279
page(s): 264-266, 270, 272, 276 [details]   

additional source Kimura, A.; Sakaguchi, E.; Nonaka, M. (2009). Multi-component complement system of Cnidaria: C3, Bf, and MASP genes expressed in the endodermal tissues of a sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Immunobiology, 214, 165-178
page(s): 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 171, 173, 174, 175, 176 [details]   

additional source Eckelbarger, K. J.; Hand, C. H.; Uhlinger, K. R. (2008). Ultrastructural features of the trophonema and oogenesis in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis (Edwardsiidae). Invertebrate Biology, 127(4): 3810395
page(s): 381, 382, 383, 389, 391, 392, 393 [details]   

additional source Geller, J. B.; Fitzgerald, L. J.; King, C. E. (2005). Fission in sea anemones: Integrative studies of life cycle evolution. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 45, 615-622
page(s): 618 [details]   

additional source Watson, G. M.; Graugnard, E. M.; Mire, P. (2007). The involvement of Arl-5b in the repair of hair cells in sea anemones. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 8, 183-193
page(s): 186 [details]   

additional source Fautin, D. G. (1997). Cnidarian reproduction: assumptions and their implications. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Coelenterate Biology, 151-162
page(s): 156 [details]   

additional source Rentzsch, F.; Anton, R.; Saina, M.; Hammerschmidt, M.; Holstein, T. W.; Technau, U. (2006). Asymmetric expression of the BMP antagonists chordin and gremlin in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis: implications for the evolution of axial patterning. Developmental Biology, 296, 375-387
page(s): 375, 376, 377, 385 [details]   

additional source Williams, R. B. (1979). Studies on the nematosomes of Nematostella vectensis Stephenson (Coelenterata: Actiniaria). Journal of Natural History, 13, 69-80
page(s): 69-79 [details]   

additional source Sullivan, J. C.; Finnerty, J. R. (2007). A surprising abundance of human disease genes in a simple "basal" animal, the starlet sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis). Genome, 50, 689-692
page(s): 689-692 [details]   

additional source Daly, M.; Chaudhuri, A.; Gusmão, L.; Rodríguez, E. (2008). Phylogenetic relationships among sea anemones (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 48, 292-301
page(s): 295 [details]   

additional source Nevalainen, T. J. (2008). Phospholipases A2 in the genome of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part D, 3, 226-233
page(s): 226-232 [details]   

additional source Daly, M.; Gusmão, L.; Reft, A. J.; Rodríguez, E. (2010). Phylogenetic signal in mitochondrial and nuclear markers in sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria). Integrative and Comparative Biology, 50(3): 371-388
page(s): 373 [details]   

additional source Reitzel, A. M.; Darling, J. A.; Sullivan, J. C.; Finnerty, J. R. (2008). Global population genetic structure of the starlet anemone Nematostella vectensis: multiple introductions and implications for conservation policy. Biological Invasions, 10, 1197-1213
page(s): 1197, 1198, 1199, 1200, 1201, 1202, 1204, 1205, 1206, 1207, 1208, 1209, 1210, 1211 [details]   

additional source Chen, C.; Soong, K.; Chen, C. A. (2008). The smallest oocytes among broadcast-spawning actiniarians and a unique lunar reproductive cycle in a unisexual population of the sea anemone, Aiptasia pulchella (Anthozoa: Actiniaria). Zoological Studies, 47(1): 37-45
page(s): 38, 39, 41, 43 [details]   

additional source Fautin, D. G.; Zelenchuk, T.; Raveendran, D. (2007). Genera of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia), and their type species. Zootaxa, 1668, 183-244
page(s): 216 [details]   

additional source Kraus, Y.; Technau, U. (2006). Gastrulation in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis occurs by invagination and immigration: an ultrastructural study. Development, Genes and Evolution, 216, 119-132
page(s): 119, 120, 125, 127, 128, 130, 131 [details]   

additional source Steele, R. E.; David, C. N.; Technau, U. (2010). A genomic view of 500 million years of cnidarian evolution. Trends in Genetics, 30(10): 1-7
page(s): 1, 2 [details]   

additional source Williams, R. B. (1975). A redescription of the brackish-water sea anemone Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, with an appraisal of congeneric species. Journal of Natural History, 9, 51-64
page(s): 51-59, 60, 61, 62, 63 [details]   

additional source Williams, R. B. (1976). Conservation of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis in Norfolk, England and its world distribution. Transactions of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalist's Society, 23(5): 257-266
page(s): 257-266 [details]   

additional source Sullivan, J. C.; Ryan, J. F.; Mullikin, J. C.; Finnerty, J. R. (2007). Conserved and novel Wnt clusters in the basal eumetazoan Nematostella vectensis. Development, Genes and Evolution, 217, 235-239
page(s): 235-239 [details]   

additional source Reitzel, A. M.; Sullivan, J. C.; Finnerty, J. R. (2006). Qualitative shift to indirect development in the parasitic sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 46(6): 827-837
page(s): 827, 829, 830, 831, 832, 834, 835 [details]   

additional source Reitzel, A. M.; Burton, P. M.; Krone, C.; Finnerty, J. R. (2007). Comparison of developmental trajectories in the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis: embryogenesis, regeneration, and two forms of asexual fission. Invertebrate Biology, 126(2): 99-112
page(s): 99-110 [details]   
 
 Present  Inaccurate  Introduced: alien  Containing type locality 
    Definitions

Nontype AMNH NONE, geounit United States Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype PEUFR GPA 137, geounit Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype SMNH Type 1099, geounit United Kingdom Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype USNM 52255, geounit United States Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Nontype USNM 53764, geounit United States Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Paratype (of Nematostella pellucida Crowell, 1946) USNM 43764, geounit United States Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Syntype SMNH 4874, geounit United Kingdom Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
Unknown type BMNH 1971.7.1.1, geounit United Kingdom Exclusive Economic Zone [details]
From regional or thematic species database
Introduced species vector dispersal United States part of the North Pacific Ocean (Marine Region) Aquaculture: accidental [details]

From other sources
Diet Generally, anthozoans are primarly carnivorous which prey on sea urchins, gastropods, bivalves, or crustaceans that crawl or swim into their grasp. [details]

Distribution European arctic to Cape Cod.  [details]

Habitat burrowing in sandy, muddy habitats [details]

Reproduction reproduce asexually through longitudinal fission and sexually (protandric hermaphrodites) [details]

Type species Type species of *Nematostella* by original designation. [details]
LanguageName 
English starlet seanemonestarlet sea anemonestarlet anemoneathenarian burrowing anemone  [details]
German Sternchenanemone  [details]